# Chapter 9 – Summary

## 9.1 Stoichiometric Basics

A balanced chemical equation may be used to describe a reaction’s stoichiometry (the relationships between amounts of reactants and products). Coefficients from the equation are used to derive stoichiometric factors that subsequently may be used for computations relating reactant and product masses, molar amounts, and other quantitative properties. Mole quantities of one substance can be related to mass quantities using a balanced chemical equation.

## 9.2 Mole-Mass and Mass-Mass Calculations

Mole quantities of one substance can be related to mass quantities using a balanced chemical equation. Mass quantities of one substance can be related to mass quantities using a balanced chemical equation. In all cases, quantities of a substance must be converted to moles before the balanced chemical equation can be used to convert to moles of another substance.

## 9.3 Limiting Reactants

When reactions are carried out using less-than-stoichiometric quantities of reactants, the amount of product generated will be determined by the limiting reactant.

## 9.4 Reaction Yields

The amount of product generated by a chemical reaction is its actual yield. This yield is often less than the amount of product predicted by the stoichiometry of the balanced chemical equation representing the reaction (its theoretical yield). The extent to which a reaction generates the theoretical amount of product is expressed as its percent yield.