Appendix G: Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases

Commercial Acids and Bases

Table G.1: Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases
Acid or Base[1] Density (g/mL)[2] Percentage by Mass Molarity
acetic acid, glacial 1.05 99.5% 17.4
aqueous ammonia[3] 0.90 28% 14.8
hydrochloric acid 1.18 36% 11.6
nitric acid 1.42 71% 16.0
perchloric acid 1.67 70% 11.65
phosphoric acid 1.70 85% 14.7
sodium hydroxide 1.53 50% 19.1
sulfuric acid 1.84 96% 18.0

Attribution & References

Except where otherwise noted, this page is adapted from “Appendix F: Composition of Commercial Acids and Bases” In General Chemistry 1 & 2 by Rice University, a derivative of Chemistry (Open Stax) by Paul Flowers, Klaus Theopold, Richard Langley & William R. Robinson and is licensed under CC BY 4.0. ​Access for free at Chemistry (OpenStax)

  1. Acids and bases are commercially available as aqueous solutions. This table lists properties (densities and concentrations) of common acid and base solutions. Nominal values are provided in cases where the manufacturer cites a range of concentrations and densities.
  2. This column contains specific gravity data. In the case of this table, specific gravity is the ratio of density of a substance to the density of pure water at the same conditions. Specific gravity is often cited on commercial labels.
  3. This solution is sometimes called “ammonium hydroxide,” although this term is not chemically accurate.


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