Emergency/disaster management begins with identifying risks and this is a fundamental step in disaster management. The second step is preparing which includes developing plans and policies, education, training, as well as conducting drills or mock emergencies. Disaster response, the third step, occurs after the disaster occurs and entails notifying the appropriate persons and activating the disaster plan as well as communicating and coordinating with other agencies. The final step is recovery, focusing on the return to normal routines.
Nurses play critical and significant roles in providing health care and in disaster management, they must “work with other healthcare providers to identify and plan for risks, participate in preparedness education and training, respond efficiently and effectively in a timely manner, and participate in the recovery process with other disaster management teams” (Al Harthi, 2022). Al Harthi et al (2022), in their scoping review, concluded that there were many challenges for nurses in disaster management including an inadequate level of preparedness.