References, Readings, and Resources


ASQ. (n.d.) What is six sigma? Quality Resources. 


Baker, G.,  Norton, P.,  Flintoft, V., , R.,  Blais, Brown, A.  Cox, J. Etchells, E.,  Ghali, W., Hébert, P. , Majumdar, S.R.,  O’Beirne, M.,  Palacios-Derflingher, L.,  Reid, R., Sheps,S.,  & Tamblyn, R.  (2004) The Canadian Adverse Events Study: the incidence of adverse events among hospital patients in Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 170(11), 1678-1686.


Canadian Nurses Association. (2017). Code of ethics for Registered Nurses.


de Jonge, V., Sint Nicolaas, J., van Leerdam, M.E., & Kuipers, E.J. …. Tamblin, R. (2011). Overview of the quality assurance movement in health care. Best Practice and Research Clinical Gastroenterology, 25(3), 337-47


Excellent Care for All Act, 2010, S.O. 2010, c. 14


Health Quality Ontario. (n.d.). Quality improvement plans. Quality Improvement. 


McGaffigan, P. (2019, May 2) Why Florence Nightingale’s improvement lessons still matter today. Institute for Health Care Improvement. 


Reason J. (2000). Human error: models and management. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 320(7237), 768–770.



Additional Readings and Resources

Accreditation Canada (2020). Required organizational practices 2020 Handbook


Bilawka, E., & Craig, B.J. (2003). Quality assurance in health care: past, present and future. International Journal of Dental Hygiene, 1(3),159-68.


Brown, A. (2014, September 2). Quality Improvement versus Quality Assurance.  (Youtube).


Chan B., & Cochrane D. (2016) Measuring patient harm in Canadian Hospitals. What can be done to improve patient safety? Canadian Institute for Heath Information, Canadian Patient Safety Institute.


Committee on Engineering and the Health Care System. (2005). Building a better delivery system: A new engineering/health care partnership. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).


Di Vincenzo, P. (2017). Team huddles: A winning strategy for safety. Nursing, 47(7), 59–60. doi: 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000520522.84449.0e.


Deightan, J. (2018). Development of the Huddle Observation Tool for structured case management discussions to improve situation awareness on inpatient clinical wards. BMJ Quality and Safety, 27(5), 365–372.


Donabedian A. (2005). Evaluating the quality of medical care. 1966. The Milbank Quarterly83(4), 691–729. ( Reprinted from The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 1966, 44(3),166–203).


Edbrooke-Childs, J., Hayes, J., Sharples, E., Gondek, D., Stapley, E., Sevdalis, N., Lachman, P., & Dutka, P. (2016). The huddle: It’s not just for football anymore. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 43(2), 161–162.


Fencl, J. L., & Willoughby, C. (2019). Daily organizational safety huddles: An Important pause for situational awareness. AORN journal, 109(1), 111–118.


Guyatt, G., Cook, D., & Haynes, B. (2004). Evidence based medicine has come a long way. BMJ (Clinical research ed.)329(7473), 990–991.


Hardcastle, L. (2017). Legal Mechanisms to improve quality of care in Canadian hospitals. Alberta Law Review, 54(3).


Hippocratic Oath (Modern and Original Versions) (n.d.). Who do you trust?


Institute for Health Care Improvement (IHI).


Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. (1999).  To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington: National Academies Press.


Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. (2001) Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st century. Washington: National Academies Press.


Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada (ISMP).


Joint Commission.


Kadivar, M., Manookian, A., Asghari, F., Niknafs, N., Okazi, A., Zarvani, A. (2017) Ethical and legal aspects of patient’s safety: a clinical case report. Journal of  Medical Ethics History of Medicine, 10(15)


Keatings M., Martin, M., McCallum A., 7 Lewis, J.  (2006) Medical errors: Understanding the parents perspective. A. Marlow & R. M. Laxer (Eds.), Paediatric Clinics of North America, 53(6), 1079-1089.


La Sala, C.A. (2009). Moral accountability and integrity in nursing practice.  Nursing Clinics of North America, 44(4). 423-434.

Leape, L.L., & Berwick, D.M., (2005) Five years after To Err Is Human: what have we learned? Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 2384-2390. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.19.2384

Melton L, Lengerich, A., Collins, M., McKeehan, R., Dunn, D., Griggs, P., Davies, T., Johnson, B., & Bugajski, A. (2017). Evaluation of huddles: A multisite ftudy. Health Care Manager (Frederick), 36(3), 282-287. doi: 10.1097/HCM.0000000000000171.


Ministry of Health, Ministry of Long-Term Care. (n.d.). About the excellent care for all act


Müller, M., Jürgens, J., Redaèlli, M., Klingberg, K., Hautz, W. E., & Stock, S. (2018). Impact of the communication and patient hand-off tool SBAR on patient safety: a systematic review. BMJ Open, 8(8), e022202.


NHS Foundation Trust. (n.d.). SMART aims. Kent Community Health.


Office of the Chief Coroner. Patient Safety Review Committee 2013-2014 Annual Report .


Pimentel, C.B., Snow, A.L., Carnes, S.L., Shah, N.R., Loup, J.R., Vallejo-Luces, T.M., Madrigal, C., Hartmann, C.W. (2021). Huddles and their effectiveness at the frontlines of clinical care: a scoping review. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 36(9), 2772-2783.


Ryan, S., Ward, M., Vaughan, D., Murray, B., Zena, M., O’Connor, T., Nugent, L., & Patton, D. (2019). Do safety briefings improve patient safety in the acute hospital setting? A systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing,75(10), 2085-2098.


Scales, D. C., Dainty, K., Hales, B., Pinto, R., Fowler, R. A., Adhikari, N. K., & Zwarenstein, M. (2011). A multifaceted intervention for quality improvement in a network of intensive care units: a cluster randomized trial.JAMA, 305(4), 363–372.


Scobie, A. C., & Persaud, D. D. (2010). Patient engagement in patient safety: Barriers and facilitators. Patient Safety and Quality Healthcare, 7(2), 42-47.

Smartsheet. (2021, July 21). Quality Improvement Processes: Basics and Beyond: smartsheet.

Stacey, D., & Carley, M. (2017). The pan-Canadian Oncology Symptom Triage and Remote Support (COSTaRS)-Practice guides for symptom management in adults with cancer. Canadian Oncology Nursing Journal = Revue canadienne de nursing oncologique, 27(1), 92–98.

The Deming Institute. (n.d.) PDSA cycle


Traynor,  K. (2015). Pharmacists say safety huddles aid problem solving. American Journal Health System Pharmacy, 72(10), 766, 768.


Tye , J. (2020). Florence Nightingale’s lasting legacy for health care. Nurse Leader.18(3), 220-226.


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Leadership for Nurses in Clinical Settings Copyright © 2022 by Dr. Kirsten Woodend, Dr. Catherine Thibeault, Dr. Manon Lemonde, Dr. Janet McCabe is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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