References, Readings, and Resources


Abelsen, B., Strasser, R., Heaney, D., Berggren, P., Sigurðsson, S., Brandstorp, H., Wakegijig, J., Forsling, N., Moody-Corbett, P., Healey Akearok, G., Mason, A., Savage, C., & Nicoll, P. (2020).  Plan, recruit, retain: a framework for local healthcare organizations to achieve a stable remote rural workforce. Human Resources of Health, 18(63).

Baumann, A., Yan, J., Degelder, J., & Malikov, K. (2006). Retention strategies for nursing: A profile of four countries. Human Health Resource Series, Number 5. Nursing Health Services Research Unit.

Brook, J., Aitken, L., Webb, R., MacLaren, J., & Salmon, D. (2019). Characteristics of successful interventions to reduce turnover and increase retention of early career nurses: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies91, 47-59. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.11.003

Buchan, J., Shaffer, F. A., & Catton, H. (2018). Policy brief: Nurse retention. International Council of Nurses.

Bush, M. C. (2018, December). This is what makes employees happy at work [Video]. TED.

Canadian Nurses Association. (2009).  Tested solutions for eliminating Canada’s registered nurse shortage.

Efendi, F., Kurniati, A., Bushy, A., & Gunawan, J. (2019). Concept analysis of nurse retentionNursing & health sciences21(4), 422-427. DOI: 10.1111/nhs.12629.

Estabrooks C. A., Squires J. E., Carleton H. L., Cummings G. G., & Norton P. G. (2015). Who is looking after Mom and Dad? Unregulated workers in Canadian long-term care homes. Canadian Journal of Aging, 34(1), 47-59. doi:10.1017/S0714980814000506

Hermus, G., & Stonebridge, C. (2017). Future care for Canadian seniors. A primer on nursing supply and demand. The Conference Board of Canada.

Kinsella, E. A., Bossers, A., Ferguson, K., Jenkins, K., Bezzina, M. B., MacPhail, A., Moosa, T., Schurr, S., Whitehead, J., & Hobson, S. (2016). Preceptor education program for health professionals and students (2nd ed.). The University of Western Ontario.

Kroezen, M., Dussault, G., Craveiro, I., Dieleman, M., Jansen, C., Buchan, J., Barriball, L., Rafferty, A.M., Bremner, J., & Sermeus, W. (2015). Recruitment and retention of health professionals across Europe: a literature review and multiple case study researchHealth Policy119(12), 1517-1528.

Kurnat-Thoma, E., Ganger, M., Peterson, K., & Channell, L. (2017). Reducing annual hospital and registered nurse staff turnover—A 10-element onboarding program interventionSAGE Open Nursing3, 1-13. doi: 10.1177/2377960817697712

Lartey, S., Cummings, G., & Profetto‐McGrath, J. (2013). Interventions that promote retention of experienced registered nurses in health care settings: A systematic reviewJournal of Nursing Management22(8), 1027-1041. doi: 10.1111/jonm.12105.

Lavoie-Tremblay, M., Chevrier, A., Emed, J., Clausen, C., Biron, A., & Oliver, C. (2019). Global shortage of nurses. McGill University.

National Disabilities Services. (2017). Values based recruitment toolkit.

Office of the Auditor General of B.C. (2018, February 22). An independent audit of the recruitment and retention of rural and remote nurses in Northern B.C. [Video]. YouTube.

Patterson, F., Kerrin, M., Born, M., Oostrom, J. K., & Prescott-Clements, L. (2015). What are values and how can we assess them? Implications for values-based recruitment in healthcare. In J. Cleland & S. J. Durning (Eds), Researching medical education (1st ed., pp. 167-179). John Wiley & Sons.

Pauley, T., & Fox, C. (2018). Using a positive practice environment framework to support recruitment. Nursing Times, 114(10), 26-28.

Ramji, Z., & Etowa, J. (2018). Workplace integration: Key considerations for internationally educated nurses and employers. Administrative Sciences, 8(2). doi: 10.3990/admsci8010002

Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario (2013). Developing and sustaining nursing leadership (2nd ed.).

Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario. (2017). Developing and sustaining safe, effective staffing and workload practices (2nd ed.).

Smallwood, R. (2021, January 29). Hiring the right nurses: 5 characteristics to look for. Relias.

The Gritty Nurse Podcast. (2021, July 8). The pizza just won’t cut it: Hitting the reset button on how we think about nursing retention [Audio podcast].

Twigg, D., & McCullough, K. (2014). Nurse retention: A review of strategies to create and enhance positive practice environments in clinical settings. International Journal of Nursing Studies51(1), 85-92.

University of Hull. (2022). Supporting transition and retention of newly qualified nurses, transition toolkit. Piktochart.

World Health Organization. (2016). Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030.

World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. (2011). Technical meeting on health workforce retention in countries of the South-Eastern Europe health network.


Additional Readings and  Resources

World Health Organization. (2020). State of the world’s nursing, 2020, executive summary.


Canadian Nurses Association. (2009). Tested solutions for eliminating Canada’s Registered Nurse shortage.


Efendi, F., Kurniati, A., Bushy, A., & Gunawan, J. (2019). Concept analysis of nurse retention. Nursing & Health Sciences, 21(4), 422-427. doi: 10.1111/nhs.12629


Halter, M., Pelone, F., Boiko, O., Beighton, C., Harris, R., Gale, J., Gourlay, S., & Drennan, V. (2017). Interventions to reduce adult nursing turnover: a systematic review of systematic reviews. The Open Nursing Journal, 11, 108-123. doi: 10.2174/1874434601711010108


Society for Human Resource Management. (2016). A guide to conducting behavioral interviews with early career job candidates.


Competency & values-based interview questions for search committees. (2022). St. Lawrence University.


Covell, C. L., Primeau, M-D., Kilpatrick, K., & St-Pierre, I. (2017). Internationally educated nurses in Canada: predictors of workforce integration. Human Resources for Health, 15(26).


Kornelsen, J., & Carthew, C. (2018). Community-level strategies for recruiting and retaining health care providers to rural and remote areas: A scoping review. Rural Evidence Review.


Kulig, J. C., Kilpatrick, K., Moffitt, P., & Zimmer, L. (2015). Recruitment and retention in rural nursing: It’s still an issue!. Nursing Leadership, 28(2), 40-50.


Nour, V., & Williams, A. M. (2019). “Theory becoming alive”: The learning transition process of newly graduated nurses in Canada. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 51(1), 6-13.


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Leadership for Nurses in Clinical Settings Copyright © 2022 by Dr. Kirsten Woodend, Dr. Catherine Thibeault, Dr. Manon Lemonde, Dr. Janet McCabe is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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