6.11. Key Terms

Chapter 6

ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network): An early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP. Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet. Originally developed by the US Department of Defense. (6.4)

Bandwidth: Can be narrow or broad, and it depends on the access technology. Broadband is when a high amount of data is transmitted simultaneously by digital subscriber line, cable and fibre optic technologies. Narrowband is when a limited amount of data is transferred over a specified time period. (6.2)

Bluetooth: A standard for the short-range wireless interconnection of cellular phones, computers, and other electronic devices. (6.7)

Bridge: A network device that connects two networks together and only allows packets through that are needed.

Broadband: a high capacity transmission technique using a wide range of frequencies, which enables a large number of messages to be communicated simultaneously. (6.6)

Client: The application that runs on a personal computer or workstation. (6.3)

Cloud Computing: The practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer.

Computer Network: A group of two or more computer systems linked together by communications channels to share data and information. Networks often link thousands of users and can transmit audio and video as well as data. (6.3)

Data Communication: The electronic transmission of encoded information to, from and between computers. Data communication requires a number of devices in order for information to be transferred. (6.2)

Domain Name System (DNS): which acts as a directory on the Internet when a request to access a device with a domain name is given. (6.5)

Domain Name: A descriptive text followed by the top level domain that is human friendly name for a device on the internet. For example cpp.edu or coke.com. (6.5)

Domain Name Extension: The extension at the end of the domain name that indicates type of organization, such as .com, .org, .net, .edu…etc. (6.5)

Extranet: An intranet that can be partially accessed by authorized outside users, enabling businesses to exchange information over the Internet securely. (6.8)

Internet: An electronic communications network that connects computer networks and organizational computer facilities around the world. (6.4)

Internet Service Provider (ISP): Many, but not all, ISPs are big telecommunications companies like Rogers Communications, Bell Canada, or Telus Inc . These providers connect to one another, exchanging traffic, and ensure your messages get to other computers that are online and willing to communicate with you.(6.4)

Intranet: A local or restricted communications network, especially a private network created using World Wide Web software. (6.8)

IP Address: A unique identifying number assigned to every device that communicates on the internet. (6.5)

IPV4 and IPV6: Internet Protocol address standard used has been IPv4(version 4) which has the format of four numbers between 0 and 255 separated by a period. IPv6 (version 6) is formatted as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits. (6.5)

LAN: Local Area Network. A local network that connects computers and other devices in a relatively small area, typically a single building or a group of buildings. (6.3)

Medium: Provides a path for signals to be transmitted. This can be in a physical format like copper cable, coaxial cable or fibre optics. It can also be radiated or wireless.(6.2)

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): Spans a larger area like a city or region whereas a wide area network (WAN) connects computers at different sites via telecommunications media such as phone lines, satellites, and microwaves (6.3)

Mobile Network: A cellular network or mobile network is a communications network where the last link is wireless. The network is distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixedlocation transceiver, known as a cell site or base station. (6.7)

Modem: Converts the format of the data so it may be transmitted between computers. .(6.2)

Packet: The fundamental unit of data transmitted over the internet. Each packet includes the sender’s address, the destination address, a sequence number and piece of the overall message to be sent. (6.5)

Packet Switching: When a packet is passed from one router to another across the Internet until it reaches its destination.

Protocol: A specific set of communication rules used by computers. (6.4)

Router: A device that receives and analyzes packets and then routes them towards their destination. (6.5)

Server: that manages network resources or performs special tasks such as storing files, managing one or more printers, or processing database queries. Any user on the network can access the server’s capabilities. (6.3)

TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. Defines how electronic devices (like computers) should be connected over the Internet, and how data should be transmitted between them. (6.4)

Tim Berners Lee: Inventor of the World Wide Web by developing an easy way to navigate the Internet through the use of linked text (hypertext). (6.4)

Virtual Private Network: A method employing encryption to provide secure access to a remote computer over the Internet. (6.8)

VoIP: Voice Over IP. A methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. (6.7)

WAN: A Wide Area Network, telecommunications network or computer network that extends over a large geographical area. (6.3)

Web 2.0: The second stage of development of the World Wide Web, characterized especially by the change from static web pages to dynamic or user generated content and the growth of social media. (6.4)

Web 3.0: A third phase in the evolution of the World Wide Web, based on the idea that the Internet ‘understands’ the pieces of information it stores and is able to make logical connections between them. (6.4)

Web 4.0 The fourth phase in the evolution of the World Wide Web is referred to as the intelligent web and will involve the Internet of Things and connected devices

WiFi: A facility allowing computers, smartphones, or other devices to connect to the Internet or communicate with one another wirelessly within a particular area. (6.7)

World Wide Web: Simply one piece of the Internet made up of web servers that have HTML pages that are being viewed on devices with web browsers. (6.4)

Adapted from Information Systems for Business and Beyond Glossary by Ruth Guthrie licensed under a CC-BY-3.0


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Information Systems for Business and Beyond Copyright © 2022 by Shauna Roch; James Fowler; Barbara Smith; and David Bourgeois is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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