5.9. Summary

Key Takeaways

  • Data is made up of facts of the world.¬† You must process data to get information.
  • A database is an organized collection of related data.
  • A database management system (DBMS) is a software application that is used to create and manage databases, and can take the form of a personal DBMS, used by one person, or an enterprise DBMS that can be used by multiple users
  • Relational databases are the most widely used type of database, where data is structured into tables and all tables must be related to each other through unique identifiers.
  • Designing a relational database involves determining how the data is organized into tables, setting primary keys and creating relationships among the tables.
  • Normalization is the process of designing a database to reduce redundancy and ensure integrity.
  • The database approach allows for the control of redundant data, data integrity, data sharing, and security and recovery.
  • There are many data types, and it is important to use the correct one.


  1. What is metadata?
  2. Explain in your own words how the data component relates to the hardware and software components of information systems.
  3. What is a database management system and how does it work?
  4. What is the difference between a spreadsheet and a database? List three differences between them.
  5. What are the characteristics of a relational database?
  6. Outline the steps of the data hierarchy using an example.
  7. How do you go about choosing a primary key? What are some of the characteristics you would look for?
  8. Describe what the term normalization means.
  9. What are the benefits of using the database approach?
  10. What language can be used to create queries in databases?
  11. Why is it important to define the data type of a field when designing a relational database?
  12. Name a database you interact with frequently. What would some of the field names be?


This assignment is designed to help you understand how to model a relational database.


  1.  Using the data in the Cake Order Database, decide what tables of data could be created, and what fields would be included in the tables.
  2. Identify what field would serve as the primary key for the tables.
  3. Create an entity relationship diagram showing the tables (with fields) and relationships among the tables.
  4. What other data could be included in this database? What benefits are there from organizing the data this way as opposed to in an Excel file?


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Information Systems for Business and Beyond Copyright © 2022 by Shauna Roch; James Fowler; Barbara Smith; and David Bourgeois is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book