3.8 Key Terms

A KeyKey Terms

Cross-cultural marketing is defined as the process of marketing among consumers whose culture differs from that of the marketer’s own culture; such as language, religion, social norms and values, education and living style. 3.6

Culture: In the broadest sense, refers to how and why we think and function. It encompasses all sorts of things—how we eat, play, dress, work, think, interact, and communicate. Everything we do, in essence, has been shaped by the cultures in which we are raised. Similarly, a person in another country is also shaped by his or her cultural influences. These cultural influences impact how we think and communicate. 3.0

Cultural Environment: Consists of the influence of religious, family, educational, and social systems in the marketing system. 3.5

High and Low Context: Refers to how a message is communicated. In high-context cultures, such as those found in Latin America, Asia, and Africa, the physical context of the message carries a great deal of importance. 3.3

Individualism: Is just what it sounds like. It refers to people’s tendency to take care of themselves and their immediate circle of family and friends, perhaps at the expense of the overall society. 3.2

Long-Term Orientation: Which refers to whether a culture has a long-term or short-term orientation. 3.2

Masculinity: This may sound like an odd way to define a culture. When we talk about masculine or feminine cultures, we’re not talking about diversity issues. It’s about how society views traits that are considered masculine or feminine. 3.2

National Culture: As it sounds—defined by its geographic and political boundaries and includes even regional cultures within a nation as well as among several neighbouring countries. What is important about nations is that boundaries have changed throughout history. 3.1

Nonverbal Communication: Is the process of conveying a message without the use of words. It can include gestures and facial expressions, tone of voice, timing, posture and where you stand as you communicate.3.4

Organizations: Every organization has its own workplace culture, referred to as the organizational culture. This defines simple aspects such as how people dress (casual or formal), how they perceive and value employees, or how they make decisions (as a group or by the manager alone). 3.1

Personality: As a person’s identity and unique physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics. 3.1

Power Distance: Refers to how openly a society or culture accepts or does not accept differences between people, as in hierarchies in the workplace, in politics, and so on. 3.2

Space: Refers to everything from how close people stand to one another to how people might mark their territory or boundaries in the workplace and in other settings. 3.3

Subcultures: Many groups are defined by ethnicity, gender, generation, religion, or other characteristics with cultures that are unique to them. 3.1

Uncertainty Avoidance (UA): This refers to how much uncertainty a society or culture is willing to accept. It can also be considered an indication of the risk propensity of people from a specific culture. People who have high uncertainty avoidance generally prefer to steer clear of conflict and competition. 3.2



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Global Marketing In a Digital World Copyright © 2022 by Lina Manuel is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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