14.9 Key Terms

A KeyKey Terms

Artificial Intelligence: The ability of a computer or machine to think and learn, and mimic human behaviour became the focus of many in the 1950s. 14.2

Augmented Reality (AR): Enhances one’s view of the real world with layers of digital information added to it.  With AR there is no created scenario; instead, an actual event is being altered in real-time (Moawad et al., 2020). 14.6

Automation: The use of machines, control systems and information technologies to optimize productivity in the production of goods and delivery of services (automation, n.d.). 14.4

Deep Learning: Uses a process that replicates the human brain in data processing and also creates patterns for decision making. 14.4

Expert Systems: Aim to emulate the human ability to make decisions in specific contexts. 14.4

Extended Reality or XR: XR is an umbrella term that covers all forms and combinations of real and virtual environments. This includes augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR)  and a combination of the two or mixed reality (MR) (Likens, 2019). 14.6

Fifth Generation Computer Project (FGCP): From 1982-1990, they invested $400 million dollars with the goals of revolutionizing computer processing, implementing logic programming, and improving artificial intelligence. Unfortunately, most of the ambitious goals were not met. 14.3

General AI: Also referred to as artificial general intelligence (AGI) or strong AI is where artificial intelligence is the same as human intelligence. It means that machines have the ability to apply what they have learned across different tasks, take in new information, and apply reason. 14.4

Intelligent Agents: The use of software to perform specific tasks. 14.4

Internet: Is a network of networks—millions of them, actually. If the network at your university, your employer, or your home has internet access, it connects to an internet service provider (ISP). 14.1

Internet Service Provider (ISP): Many, but not all, ISPs are big telecommunications companies like Rogers Communications, Bell Canada, or Telus Inc . These providers connect to one another, exchanging traffic, and ensure your messages get to other computers that are online and willing to communicate with you. 14.1

Kismet: A robot developed by Cynthia Breazeal that could recognize and display emotions. in 2017, Google’s Alpha Go was able to defeat Chinese Go champion Ke Jie. 14.3

Limited Memory: This is the ability of AI to use past experience and information to make predictions. 14.4

Machine Learning: Uses data and algorithms to imitate the way humans learn. 14.4

Nanobot: Is a robot whose components are on the scale of about a nanometer, which is one billionth of a meter. While still an emerging field, it is showing promise for applications in the medical field.  14.5

Natural Language Processing: This allows computers to understand and communicate in human language. 14.4

Narrow AI: Also referred to as artificial narrow intelligence (ANI) or weak AI is a computer’s ability to perform a single task  well.  This is the type of AI we see today. Natural language processing  used in smart assistants like Siri and Google are examples of narrow AI. 14.4

Protocol: is the set of rules that govern how communications take place on a network. This problem was solved by the invention of the 14.1

Rapid Prototyping: Similar to 3D printing will very quickly become widely sought. This can provide a platform where ideas and concepts that are discussed today can have the prototypes available the very next day.  14.7

Reactive Machines: AI that conducts tasks for specific objectives. It is the first step of any AI system where no learning takes place. An example of this type of AI is Deep Blue the IBM program that beat chess champion Garry Kasparov. 14.4

Robots: The use of machines to perform tasks traditionally done by humans. 14.4

Self-Aware: AI with the sense of self and consciousness. This type of AI is not yet developed. 14.4

Super AI: Also referred to as artificial super intelligence (ASI) is when the computer will be exceed human capabilities. 14.4

Theory of Mind: AI with the awareness that others have their own beliefs, objectives, and intentions. This type of AI is not yet developed and will be able to distinguish and understand emotion. 14.4

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP): TCP/IP was designed to allow networks running on different protocols to have an intermediary protocol that would allow them to communicate. So as long as your network supported TCP/IP, you could communicate with all of the other networks running TCP/IP. TCP/IP quickly became the standard protocol and allowed networks to communicate with each other. 14.1

UAV: Often referred to as a “drone,” is a small airplane or helicopter that can fly without a pilot. Instead of a pilot, they are either run autonomously by computers in the vehicle or operated by a person using a remote control. While most drones today are used for military or civil applications, there is a growing market for personal drones. 14.5

Virtual Reality (VR): Is a computer interaction in which a real or imagined environment is simulated. This allows users to both interact with and alter that reality within the environment. 14.6

Web 2.0: Is also referred to as the social web and occurred between 2000-2010. During this time there was a shift from read only to read and write, which allowed individuals to be content creators. 14.1

Web 3.0: Is also referred to as the semantic web and is the time after 2010 when the web evolved again to allow individuals to read, write and execute. This means that the web is more intelligent and is able to interact with users. For example, algorithms that can personalize search results. 14.1

Web 4.0: Is the future of the web, which is referred to as the intelligent web and will involve the Internet of Things and connected devices. 14.1

World Wide Web Project: Which provided an easy way to navigate the internet through the use of hypertext. The World Wide Web gained even more steam in 1993 with the release of the Mosaic browser which allowed graphics and text to be combined as a way to present information and navigate the internet. 14.1



Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Global Marketing In a Digital World Copyright © 2022 by Lina Manuel is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book