8.9 Conclusion

Reflection Activity

image of a woman with short wavy hair and glassesReturning to Naiomi’s presentation to her potential client in the paper industry, what have you learned about organization and outlines that she might use to win the client?

  • What might be her purpose statement? Central Idea Statement?
  • What would be an appropriate pattern to use, based on her presentation’s context-audience-purpose?
  • What advice would you give her about her outline?

Quick Quiz

Additional Resources

Listen to Leadership speaker Erin Meyer talk about the difference in communication styles in different societies. This presentation helps you deliver your message explicitly through words, rather than through feelings or assumptions. Leadership Speaker Erin Meyer: Low Context vs. High Context Societies

The commercial site from Inc. magazine presents an article on organizing your speech by Patricia Fripp, former president of the National Speakers Association. Writing and Organizing a Winning Speech

View an eHow video on how to organize a speech. How does the advice in this video differ from organizing advice given in this chapter? What Are the Five Organizational Patterns for Public Speaking?

Learn more about how to outline a speech from the Six Minutes public speaking and presentation skills blog. Speech Preparation #3: Don’t Skip the Speech Outline


Arrangement – means order, the organization of visual (and verbal) elements.

Clarity – strategies that help the receiver (audience) to decode the message, to understand it quickly and completely.

Cognate strategies – ways of framing, expressing, and representing a message to an audience.

Concise – being brief and direct in the visual and verbal delivery of your message.

Credibility – involves your qualities, capabilities, or power to elicit from the audience belief in your character.

Emphasis – stress, importance, or prominence—on some aspects of your speech.

Engagement – the relationship the speaker forms with the an audience.

Ethos – form of rhetorical proof outlined by Aristotle that involves the speaker’s character and expertise.

Expectations – involve the often unstated, eager anticipation of the norms, roles and outcomes of the speaker and the speech.

Logos – form of rhetorical proof outlined by Aristotle that refers to the logic of the speaker’s presentation.

Pathos – form of rhetorical proof outlined by Aristotle that refers to use of emotion as a persuasive element in the speech.

Primary source – information that is first-hand or straight from the source; information that is unfiltered by interpretation or editing.

Research – the collecting of information about a particular subject.

Reference – involves attention to the source and way you present your information.

Secondary source – information that is not directly from the source; information that has been compiled, filtered, edited, or interpreted in some way.

Tone – choice of words, your clothing, your voice, body language, the rhythm and cadence of your speech.

Chapter References

German, K.M., Gronbeck, B.E., Ehninger, D., &  Monroe, A.H. (2012). Principles of public speaking. Routledge.

Kostelnick, C. &  Roberts, D. (1998). Designing visual language: Strategies for professional communicators. Allyn Bacon.

Tucker, B. & Barton, K. (2016). Exploring public speaking: 2nd revision. http ://oer.galileo.usg.edu/communication-textbooks/1

Wisse, J. (1989). Ethos and pathos: From Aristotle to Cicero. Adolph M. Hakkert.

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