Chapter 4 – Project Team

4.6. In-depth Look: Evolution of Tuckman’s Model

In-depth Look

Group Development Theory

Based on Tuckman’s model created in 1965, other models have been developed by different people. As stated in Tuckman & Jensen (2010), one of them is Lacoursiere, in which four stages are stated:

  • Orientation: includes fears and anxiety and strong positive expectations
  • Dissatisfaction: includes a rising sense of frustration as well as depression and anger
  • Production: showed a more rational assessment of the accomplishment
  • Termination: related concerns about sadness and self-appraisal

As stated by Tuckman and Jensen, these four stages developed by Lacoursiere (1974) differentiated from Tuckman’s in three points. First, in the second phase, dissatisfaction was evidenced by the lack of intragroup conflict among the members. Second, Lacoursiere merged “norming” and “performing” in phase three, called production. Finally, the termination stage is the major change between the two models.

Yalom Model

Another one is the model of Dr. Irvin D. Yalom related to group therapy. It was specific to interpersonal relationships. He was a pioneer in making clinical practice more fun and more resourceful. His belief, similar to Tuckman, was that groups go through phases. His model for clinical work followed Tuckman’s model of forming, storming, norming, working and adjourning. Working which was a different word was the performing phase where individual growth took place.

Furthermore, Braaten brought with him a new model (1975) related to the group development, however when developing his model, he did use three stages from Tuckman’s which were forming, storming, and performing, as well as the other models explained he included a final phase of termination (Tuckman & Jensen, 2010). Braaten’s model went as follows:

  • The opening phase lacks structure
  • The elementary phase is denoted by hostility and conflicts between subgroups
  • The grown phase is where norms are sorted out and the evidence of interdependency and trust information
  • Termination is related to disengagement and ending (Tuckman & Jensen, 2010).

Interpersonal Styles and Group Development

Lastly, another variation of Tuckman’s model was made by Mann (1967) in which he designated five stages of team development (Tuckman & Jensen, 2010). The model stage went as follows:

  • Stage 1: Initial complaining
  • Stage 2: Premature enactment
  • Stage 3: Confrontation
  • Stage 4: Internalization
  • Stage 5: Separation and terminal review (Tuckman & Jensen, 2010).

Class of 2022: Marshall Howman, Daniela Martinez Munoz, Allison Smith, Tania Marisol Toribio Olivares