Chapter 4 – Project Team

4.12. Key Terms

Adjourning: Once the project is completed, the team should collect lessons learned and transition to other projects or roles. The project manager should provide recognition of the work done by the team and help them transition to their next project (provide recommendations, etc.) 4.4

A Sense of Purpose: Individually, and as a whole, a team needs an overarching sense of purpose and meaning. This sense of purpose should go beyond each individual’s project duties. 4.10

Assigning the Right Tasks to the Right People: People aren’t commodities. They aren’t interchangeable, like a router or a hand saw. They are good at specific things. HR Specialists are trained to find the right people for teams and align them with the right team tasks 4.10

Born Versus Made: This is one of the most pernicious false dichotomies regarding leadership. Dugan explains, “that there is even a need to address a consideration about whether leaders are born or made in this day and age is mind-numbingly frustrating. 4.11

Communication: They are able to relay information clearly and concisely, and be good listeners when discussing project goals, outcomes and tasks to be performed. 4.4

Communication Exercises: The team designs a presentation and delivers the presentation. 4.4

Consistency and Follow: Through the team, morale falls off when inconsistency is tolerated or when numerous initiatives are started and then abandoned. 4.10

Cooperation: Willing and able to work together for the good of the project.  They are willing to share resources, be flexible, accommodate each other’s needs and meet deadlines. 4.4

Coordination: They need to work together on the project to “keep things on track” and integrate each other’s work into the daily outcomes.4.4

Conflict Resolution: They need to have the skills to motivate and resolve conflict when it arises.  Disagreements are part of any project as each member has different ideas on how to perform tasks in the project.  Effective team members can discuss issues, brainstorm ideas for resolve, and continue to work in harmony. 4.4

Console: They need to maintain positive attitudes and be mentally and psychologically stable, and support each other to be and do the same.  They must be able to be empathic, provide soothing to each other, and help each other build self-esteem and self-confidence in the project duties. 4.4

Define The Purpose of The Team and Project:  The team needs to know the overall purpose and goals. The HR Specialist can help them set goals within the project. 4.4

Encouraging Individual Achievement: Most people have long-term aspirations, and sometimes even formalized professional development plans. As a team leader, you should be on the lookout for ways to nudge team members toward these goals. It’s not your job to ensure that they fully achieve their personal goals, but you should try to allow for at least a little forward movement. 4.10

Formal Communication: Can include questionnaires/surveys, mentoring, suggestion boxes, bulletin boards, memos, electronic mail, project handbook, meetings 4.9

Forming: The group is brought together for the first time. The team is orienting themselves to the task at hand. At this stage, there may be little agreement on how to approach the project and team members may struggle with understanding the purpose of the project. The project manager needs to provide guidance and direction during this stage. 4.4

Goal Setting: The team along with the project manager plan a simple project, with goals and outcomes, measures of success. 4.4

Informal Communication: Informal chat, the grapevine ( ie. being involved in information sharing between the team and other departments, chat in the lunchroom,  small talk at the beginning of meetings,  unofficial discussions, advice and suggestion offered or given. 4.9

Leader Versus Follower: “The conflation of leader and leadership makes it easier to create an additional false dichotomy around the terms leader and follower,” with follower considered a lesser role. “The label of leader/follower, then, is tied solely to positional authority rather than the contributions of individuals within the organization. 4.11

Leader Versus Leadership: People tend to conflate the terms leader and leadership, but, according to Dugan (2017), “Leader refers to an individual and is often, but not always, tied to the enactment of a particular role. 4.11

Leadership Versus Management: “Also tied up in leader/leadership and leader/follower dichotomies are arguments about whether leadership and management represent the same or unique phenomena. Once again, the role of authority gets tied up in the understanding of this. 4.11

Measure The Team’s Performance: The project manager the HR Specialist can discuss and establish metrics and reporting of metrics related to performance. These measurements would be discussed with the team to ensure success. The HR Specialist can help to monitor performance throughout the project. 4.4

Mentorship: Team members need to be able to talk things over with more experienced people. Encourage your team to seek out mentors. They don’t necessarily have to be part of the project. 4.10

Norming: At this stage, the team will have developed a consensus regarding roles, processes and approaches to the work ahead. The project manager should participate by working as a facilitator for the group. 4.4

Performing: At this point, the group has a clear vision and purpose and is focused on meeting performance goals, project milestones and other benchmarks. The project manager should be able to delegate more and more responsibility to the team, with less supervision. 4.4

Problem-Solving Exercises: The team is given a challenge ie. planning a trip into space.  They must work together to plan the trip and include all the resources needed to survive the trip. 4.4

Reward The Team: HR Specialists can set up reward systems that are linked to the goals of the project which helps to motivate the team for success. 4.4

Role Definition:  Each team member is given a defined role within a team challenge and plays out the role. 4.4

Sailboat Rules Communication: No one takes offence for clear direction—On a sailboat, once the sail goes up, you need to be ready to take direction from the captain, who is responsible for the welfare of all on board, and not take offence if he seems critical or unfriendly. 4.10

Storming: Team members are trying to figure out their roles in the group. Conflict and power struggles are common, but so is a clearer vision for the group. During this time of intergroup conflict, the project manager needs to provide support and coaching. 4.4