Module 3: Religion & Culture

The Vatican and Catholic Church Responses to National Socialism

: German Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen with German prelate Ludwig Kaas, Secretary of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs Giuseppe Pizzardo, Cardinal Secretary of State Eugenio Pacelli, Alfredo Ottaviani, and member of Reichsministerium des Inneren [Home Office] Rudolf Buttmann on the day that the signing of the Reichskonkordat occurred.
The signing of the Reichskonkordat on July 20, 1933, Rome. Unknown photographer. Bild 183-R24391, German Federal Archive.

Vatican Responses to National Socialism


Catholic clergy and Nazi officials, including Joseph Goebbels (far right) and Wilhelm Frick (second from right), give the Nazi salute.
Catholic Clergy and Nazi Officials give the Nazi Salute. Germany, date uncertain. Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München.


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