8.5 Key Takeaways, Knowledge Check and Key Terms

Key Takeaways

In this chapter, we learned that:

  • Motivation describes a generated drive that propels people to achieve goals or pursue particular courses of action.
  • Hierarchy-of-needs theory proposes that we’re motivated by five unmet needs— physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization— and must satisfy lower-level needs before we seek to satisfy higher-level needs.
  • Equity theory focuses on our perceptions of how fairly we’re treated relative to others. This theory proposes that employees create rewards ratios that they compare to those of others and will be less motivated when they perceive an imbalance in treatment.
  • Confirming messages include recognition, acknowledgement and endorsement. They all provide affirmation and help foster a positive communication climate.
  • Disconfirming messages include impervious messages, interrupting, irrelevant, tangential, impersonal, ambiguous, and incongruous responses. Disconfirming messages provide the relational message that people are not respected or valued and contribute to a negative communication climate.
  • Gibb provides six characteristics of supportive and defensive communication climates.
  • Empathy is an important ability for our interpersonal relationships. It has three components: cognitive, affective, and compassionate.
  • Communication styles can be described on a continuum from passive to assertive to aggressive.
  • Using “I” statements, selective inattention and withdrawal are all strategies that we can use to assert our boundaries with others.
  • There’s six steps in the assertion process. We should try to assert boundaries when in person (compared to over other channels) and should avoid asserting when we are hungry, angry, alone or tired (HALT).
  • An important part of asserting our needs includes framing the situation and if needed, refocusing the conversation using reframing.
  • When our substantive, process, relationship or face goals are threatened or impeded, it can cause conflict.
  • In the SCARF model of conflict, we can understand conflict in terms of our need for status, certainty, autonomy, relatedness and fairness.

Knowledge Check

Review your understanding of this chapter’s key concepts by taking the interactive quiz below.



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Conflict Management Copyright © 2022 by Laura Westmaas, BA, MSc is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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