In this chapter, we learned that:
- Communication is defined as the process of generating meaning by sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal symbols and signs that are influenced by multiple contexts.
- Communication can be categorized into three basic types – verbal, written, and nonverbal.
- The transactional model of communication describes communication as a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts.
- Different communication channels are more or less effective at transmitting different kinds of information. In addition, communications flow in different directions within organizations.
- Competent communicators have knowledge and skills about effective communication that they employ in a mindful and flexible manner based on the characteristics of a situation.
Review your understanding of this chapter’s key concepts by taking the interactive quiz below.
Communication is the process of generating meaning by sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal symbols and signs that are influenced by multiple contexts. See 2.1 Communication Defined
Verbal communications in business take place over the phone or in person. In addition to routine phone calls and in-person conversations, verbal communication is an important tool for creating shared values within organization through storytelling and for communicating in crucial situations. See 2.1 Communication Defined
Written communication can be constructed over a longer period of time (in contrast to verbal communication, which takes place in real time). Written communication is often asynchronous (occurring at different times). A written communication can also be read by many people (such as all employees in a department or all customers). See 2.1 Communication Defined
Non-verbal communication elements include: body language, eye contact, facial expressions, posture., touch and space. Research also shows that 55% of in-person communication comes from nonverbal cues like facial expressions, body stance, and tone of voice. See 2.1 Communication Defined
Crucial conversations are discussions where not only the stakes are high but also where opinions vary and emotions run strong between parties. See 2.1 Communication Defined
Transactional model of communication describes communication as a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts. See 2.2 The Communication Process
Social context refers to the stated rules or unstated norms that guide communication. As we are socialized into our various communities, we learn rules and implicitly pick up on norms for communicating. See 2.2 The Communication Process
Norms are social conventions that we pick up on through observation, practice, and trial and error. We may not even know we are breaking a social norm until we notice people looking at us strangely or someone corrects or teases us. See 2.2 The Communication Process
Relational context includes the previous interpersonal history and type of relationship we have with a person. See 2.2 The Communication Process
Cultural context includes various aspects of identities such as race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, sexual orientation, class, and ability. See 2.2 The Communication Process
Communication competence refers to the knowledge of effective and appropriate communication patterns and the ability to use and adapt that knowledge in various contexts. See 2.4 Communication Competence
Communication apprehension (CA) is fear or anxiety experienced by a person due to actual or imagined communication with another person or persons. CA includes multiple forms of communication, not just public speaking. See 2.4 Communication Competence