Researchers who participated in recorded interviews for this book are highlighted in bold. To learn more about them, please visit the “Meet the Researchers” page. 

Anderson, N. (1923). The hobo: The Sociology of the homeless man. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Baron, S. W., & Forde, D. R. (2020). Childhood trauma, criminogenic social schemas, and violent crime. Deviant Behavior, 41(8), 991–1004.

Baumann, R. M., Hamilton-Wright, S., Riley, D. L., Brown, K., Hunt, C., Michalak, A., & Matheson, F. I. (2019). Experiences of violence and head injury among women and transgender women sex workers. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 16(3), 278–288.

Benoit, C., Jansson, S. M., Smith, M., & Flagg, J. (2018). Prostitution stigma and its effect on the working conditions, personal lives, and health of sex workers. The Journal of Sex Research, 55(4-5), 457–471.

Benoit, C., Maurice, R., Abel, G., Smith, M., Jansson, M., Healey, P., & Magnuson, D. (2020). “I dodged the stigma bullet”: Canadian sex workers’ situated responses to occupational stigma. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 22(1), 81–95.

Buck-McFadyen, E. (2021). Competing perspectives on rural homelessness: Findings from a qualitative study in Ontario, Canada. Health & Social Care in the Community.

Canham, S. L., Fang, M. L., Battersby, L., & Wada, M. (2019). Understanding the functionality of housing-related support services through mapping methods and dialogue. Evaluation and Program Planning, 72, 33–39.

Chesnay, C. T., Bellot, C., & Sylvestre, M. E. (2013). Taming disorderly people one ticket at a time: The penalization of homelessness in Ontario and British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 55(2), 161–185.

Collins, A. B., Boyd, J., Mayer, S., Fowler, A., Kennedy, M. C., Bluthenthal, R. N., … McNeil, R. (2019). Policing space in the overdose crisis: A rapid ethnographic study of the impact of law enforcement practices on the effectiveness of overdose prevention sites. The International Journal of Drug Policy, 73, 199–207.

Cook, S., & Hole, R. (2020). “Appropriately homeless and needy:” Examining street homeless survival through the lens of Bourdieusian social capital theory. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 30(7), 816–834.

Crago, A. L., Bruckert, C., Braschel, M., & Shannon, K. (2021). Sex workers’ access to police assistance in safety emergencies and means of escape from situations of violence and confinement under an “end demand” criminalization model: A five city study in Canada. Social Sciences (Basel), 10(1), 13–.

Dej, E. (2020). A complex exile: Homelessness and social exclusion in Canada. BC: UBC Press.

Dej, E., Sanders, C., & Braimoh, J. (2021). Rewriting the narrative on homelessness in mid-size Canadian cities. Ontario: Centre for Research on Security Practices, Laurier University. Brokering a Counter-Narrative on Homelessness (

Distasio, J., Adair, C. E., Hwang, S., Hinds, A., Kopp, B. C., Aubry, T., … Kaufman, A. F. (2021). Exploring the relationship between neighbourhood quality (NQ) and housing stability among formerly homeless individuals with mental illness in housing first. Wellbeing, Space and Society, 2, 100008–.

Doberstein, C. (2020). Role-playing in public engagement for housing for vulnerable populations: An experiment exploring its possibilities and limitations. Land Use Policy, 99, 105032–.

Doberstein, C., & Smith, A. (2019a). Citizen support for spending to reduce homelessness in Canada’s largest urban centres. Housing Studies, 34(7), 1140–1162.

Doberstein, C., & Smith, A. (2019b). When political values and perceptions of deservingness collide: Evaluating public support for homelessness investments in Canada. International Journal of Social Welfare, 28(3), 282–292.

Ecker, J., & Aubry, T. (2017). A mixed methods analysis of housing and neighbourhood impacts on community integration among vulnerably housed and homeless individuals. Journal of Community Psychology, 45(4), 528–542.

Evans, J., Collins, D., & Chai, C. (2019). On thin ice: Assembling a resilient service hub. Area (London 1969), 51(3), 451–460.

Faraji, S. L., Ridgeway, G., & Wu, Y. (2018). Effect of emergency winter homeless shelters on property crime. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 14(2), 129–140.

Farha, L., & Schwan, K. (2020). A national protocol for homeless encampments in Canada. Canada: UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Housing. Tent Encampment Protocol (

Fast, D., & Cunningham, D. (2018). “We don’t belong there”: New geographies of homelessness, addiction, and social control in Vancouver’s inner city. City & Society, 30(2), 237–262.

Frederick, T. (2019). Conceptualizing the social and cultural organization of street life among young people experiencing homelessness. Journal of Youth Studies, 22(8), 1133–1149.

Frederick, T., O’Connor, C., & Koziarski, J. (2018). Police interactions with people perceived to have a mental health problem: A critical review of frames, terminology, and definitions. Victims & Offenders, 13(8), 1037-1054. 10.1080/15564886.2018.1512024

Gaetz, S., Barr, C., Friesen, A., Harris, B., Hill, C., Kovacs-Burns, K., Pauly, B., Pearce, B., Turner, A., & Marsolais, A. (2012) Canadian definition of homelessness. Toronto: Canadian Observatory on Homelessness Press. Canadian Definition of Homelessness | The Homeless Hub

Goldman‐Hasbun, J., Nosova, E., Kerr, T., Wood, E., & DeBeck, K. (2019). Homelessness and incarceration associated with relapse into stimulant and opioid use among youth who are street‐involved in Vancouver, Canada. Drug and Alcohol Review, 38(4), 428–434.

Hainstock, M., & Masuda, J. R. (2019). “We have a roof over our head, but we have to eat too:” Exploring shifting foodscapes from homelessness into Housing First in Kingston, Ontario. Health & Place, 59, 102197–102197.

Huey, L., & Ferguson, L. (2020). “Did not return in time for curfew”: A descriptive analysis of homeless missing persons cases. International Criminal Justice Review, 105756772091864–.

Isaak, C. A., Reynolds, K., Sareen, J., & Distasio, J. (2019). The entrepreneurship of survival among urban adults experiencing homelessness and mental illness. Journal of Community Psychology, 47(6), 1548–1562.

Johnstone, M., Lee, E., & Connelly, J. (2017). Understanding the meta-discourse driving homeless policies and programs in Toronto, Canada: The neoliberal management of social service delivery. International Social Work, 60(6), 1443–1456.

Kaufman, D. F. (2020a). Canadian homeless mobilities: Tracing the inter-regional movements of at home / chez soi participants. The Canadian Geographer, 65(3), 292-305.

Kaufman, D. (2020b). Expulsion: A type of forced mobility experienced by homeless people in Canada. Urban Geography, 1–23.

Kerman, N., Gran-Ruaz, S., & Lem, M. (2019). Pet ownership and homelessness: a scoping review. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 28(2), 106–114.

Kerman, N., Lem, M., Witte, M., Kim, C., & Rhoades, H. (2020). A Multilevel Intervention Framework for Supporting People Experiencing Homelessness with Pets. Animals (Basel), 10(10), 1869.

Kouyoumdjian, F. G., Wang R., Mejia-Lancheros, C., Owusu-Bempah, A., Nisenbaum, R., O’Campo, P., Stergiopoulos, V., & Hwang, S. W. (2019). Interactions between police and persons who experience homelessness and mental illness in Toronto, Canada: Findings from a prospective study. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 64(10),718-725. 10.1177/0706743719861386

Krüsi, A., Kerr, T., Taylor, C., Rhodes, T., & Shannon, K. (2016). “They won’t change it back in their heads that we’re trash’: The intersection of sex work‐related stigma and evolving policing strategies. Sociology of Health & Illness, 38(7), 1137–1150.

Lem, M. (2019). Serving homeless populations through a one health approach. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 60(10), 1119–1120.

Lemieux, A. J., Leclair, M. C., Roy, L., Nicholls, T. L., & Crocker, A. G. (2020). A typology of lifetime criminal justice involvement among homeless individuals with mental illness: Identifying needs to better target intervention. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 47(7), 790–807.

MacDonald, S. A., & Gaulin, D. (2020). The invisibility of rural homelessness in a Canadian context. Journal of Social Distress and Homelessness, 29(2), 169-183. 10.1080/10530789.2019.1688540

Magee, C., Norena, M., Hubley, A. M., Palepu, A., Hwang, S. W., Nisenbaum, R., … Gadermann, A. (2019). Longitudinal associations between perceived quality of living spaces and health-related quality of life among homeless and vulnerably housed individuals living in three Canadian cities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(23), 4808.

Magnan‐Tremblay, L., Lanctôt, N., & Couvrette, A. (2020). The hopelessness effect: Counsellors’ perceptions of their female clients involved in sex work in Canada. Health & Social Care in the Community, 28(5), 1430–1437.

Nichols, N. (2018). The social organization of access to justice for youth in “unsafe” urban neighbourhoods. Social & Legal Studies, 27(1), 79–96.

O’Grady, B., Gaetz, S., & Buccieri, K. (2011). Can I see your ID? The policing of youth homelessness in Toronto. Toronto: JFCY & Homeless Hub. CanISeeYourID_nov9.pdf (

O’Grady, B., Gaetz, S., & Buccieri, K. (2013). Tickets… and more tickets: A case study of the Enforcement of the Ontario Safe Streets Act. Canadian Public Policy, 39(4), 541-558.

Olson, N., & Pauly, B. (2021). Homeless encampments: Connecting public health and human rights. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 112, 988-991.

Orchard, T., Murie, A., Elash, H. L., Bunch, M., Middleton, C., Sadakhom, D., … Benoit, C. (2019). “People like us”: Spatialised notions of health, stigma, power and subjectivity among women in street sex work. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 21(4), 478–494.

Pijl, E. M., & Belanger, Y.D. (2021). Lost in transition: Entering the liminal space of rural homelessness in a small prairie town. Journal of Social Distress and Homelessness, 30(2), 126-134. 10.1080/10530789.2020.1763575

Quirouette, M., Frederick, T., Hughes, J., Karabanow, J., & Kidd, S. (2016). “Conflict with the law”: Regulation & homeless youth trajectories toward stability. Canadian Journal of Law and Society, 31(3), 383–404.

Ranasinghe, P. & Valverde, M. (2006). Governing homelessness through land-use: A sociolegal study of the Toronto shelter zoning by-law. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 31(3), 325-349.

Roy, L., Crocker, A., Hurtubise, R., Latimer, E., Côté, M., Billette, I., & Boissy, F. (2020). Reducing criminal justice involvement of individuals experiencing homelessness and mental illness: Perspectives of frontline practitioners. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 62(2), 1–21.

Schiff, R., Buccieri, K., Waegemakers Schiff, J., Kauppi, C., & Riva, M. (2020). COVID-19 and pandemic planning in the context of rural and remote homelessness. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 111, 967-970.

Schiff, R., & Møller, H. (Eds.). (2021). Health and health care in northern Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Sibley, M. A. (2020). Attachments to victimhood: Anti-trafficking narratives and the criminalization of the sex trade. Social & Legal Studies, 29(5), 699–717.

Skolnik, T. (2018). How and why homeless people are regulated differently. Queen’s Law Journal, 43(1), 297.

To, M. J., Palepu, A., Matheson, F. I., Ecker, J., Farrell, S., Hwang, S. W., & Werb, D. (2016). The effect of incarceration on housing stability among homeless and vulnerably housed individuals in three Canadian cities: A prospective cohort study. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 107(6), e550–e555.

van Ingen, C., Sharpe, E., & Lashua, B. (2018). Neighborhood stigma and the sporting lives of young people in public housing. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 53(2), 197–212.


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Understanding Homelessness in Canada Copyright © 2022 by Kristy Buccieri, James Davy, Cyndi Gilmer, and Nicole Whitmore is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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