Researchers who participated in recorded interviews for this book are highlighted in bold. To learn more about them, please visit the “Meet the Researchers” page. 

Advisory Committee on Homelessness. (2018). Final Report. Canada: Employment and Social Development Canada.

Anderson-Baron, J. T., & Collins, D. (2019). “Take whatever you can get”: Practicing Housing First in Alberta. Housing Studies, 34(8), 1286–1306.

Aubry, T. (2020). Analysis of housing first as a practical and policy relevant intervention: The current state of knowledge and future directions for research. European Journal of Homelessness, 14(1), 13-26.

Aubry, T., Agha, A., Mejia-Lancheros, C., Lachaud, J., Wang, R., Nisenbaum, R., … Hwang, S. W. (2021). Housing trajectories, risk factors, and resources among individuals who are homeless or precariously housed. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 693(1), 102–122.

Biss, M., & Raza, S. (2021). Implementing the right to housing in Canada: Expanding the national housing strategy. Canada: The National Right to Housing Network.

Bourque, J., VanTil, L., Nadeau, J., LeBlanc, S. R., Ebner-Daigle, J., Gibbons, C., & Darte, K. (2017). Physical health status of homeless veterans in Canada: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health, 3(2), 4–11.

Bowra, A., & Mashford-Pringle, A. (2021). More than a structure: Exploring the relationship between Indigenous homemaking practices and wholistic wellbeing. Wellbeing, Space and Society, 2.

Canham, S. L., Battersby, L., Fang, M. L., Wada, M., Barnes, R., & Sixsmith, A. (2018). Senior services that support Housing First in Metro Vancouver. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 61(1), 104–125.

Canham, S. L., Wister, A., & O’Dea, E. (2019). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to Housing First in Metro Vancouver. Evaluation and Program Planning, 75, 69–77.

Carroll, B. W. (1989). Post-war trends in Canadian housing policy. Urban History Review / Revue d’histoire urbaine, 18(1), 64–74.

Centre for Equality Rights in Accommodation and The National Right to Housing Network. (2021). The rights to life, protection of the home & nondiscrimination in Canada: Assessing the housing & homelessness crisis in accordance with Articles 2, 6, 17 & 26 of the ICCPR. Canada: CERA & NRHN. ICCPRSubmission-NRHN-CERA-2021.pdf (

Chisholm, S., & Hulchanski, D. (2019). Canada’s housing story. In D. Maclennan, H. Pawson, K. Gibb, S. Chisholm, & D. Hulchanski (Eds.). SF 21: Shaping Futures Changing the Housing Story Final Report. University of Glasgow: Policy Scotland. canadas-housing-story-2019-chap-4.pdf (

Chung, T. E., Gozdzik, A., Palma Lazgare, L. I., To, M. J., Aubry, T., Frankish, J., Hwang, S. W., & Stergiopoulos, V. (2018). Housing First for older homeless adults with mental illness: a subgroup analysis of the At Home/Chez Soi randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 33(1), 85–95.

Collins, D., & Stout, M. (2021). Does Housing First policy seek to fulfil the right to housing? The case of Alberta, Canada. Housing Studies, 36(3), 336–358.

Dej, E. & Ecker, J. (2018). “Homelessness & precarious housing in Canada: Where we have been and where we are going.” Public Sector Digest.

Distasio, J., Adair, C. E., Hwang, S., Hinds, A., Kopp, B. C., Aubry, T., … Kaufman, A. F. (2021). Exploring the relationship between neighbourhood quality (NQ) and housing stability among formerly homeless individuals with mental illness in housing first. Wellbeing, Space and Society, 2, 100008–.

Evans, J., & Masuda, J. R. (2020). Mobilizing a fast policy fix: Exploring the translation of 10-year plans to end homelessness in Alberta, Canada. Environment and Planning. C, Politics and Space, 38(3), 503–521.

Fleming, T., Damon, W., Collins, A. B., Czechaczek, S., Boyd, J., & McNeil, R. (2019). Housing in crisis: A qualitative study of the socio-legal contexts of residential evictions in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside. The International Journal of Drug Policy, 71, 169–177.

Gaetz, S. (2010). The struggle to end homelessness in Canada: How we created the crisis, and how we can end it. Open Health Services and Policy Journal, 3, 21-26. Editorial: How to End Homelessness in Canada: How we Created the Crisis, and How we can End it (

Gaetz, S. (2020). Making the prevention of homelessness a priority: The role of social innovation. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 79(2), 353–381.

Gaetz, S., O’Grady, B., Kidd, S., & Schwan, K. (2016). Without a home: The national youth homelessness survey. Toronto: Canadian Observatory on Homelessness Press.

Gaetz, S., Walter, H. and Story, C. (2021). THIS is Housing First for youth. Part 1 – program model guide. Toronto, ON: Canadian Observatory on Homelessness Press.

Government of Canada. (2017). A place to call home: Canada’s national housing strategy. Government of Canada, Ottawa. Canada’s National Housing Strategy (

Government of Canada. (2018). Reaching home: Canada’s homelessness strategy directives. Government of Canada, Ottawa. Reaching Home: Canada’s Homelessness Strategy Directives –

Government of Canada. (2019). National housing strategy act. Government of Canada, Ottawa. National Housing Strategy Act (

Greene, J. (2014). Urban restructuring, homelessness, and collective action in Toronto, 1980–2003. Urban History Review, 43(1), 21–37.

Hainstock, M., & Masuda, J. R. (2019). “We have a roof over our head, but we have to eat too:” Exploring shifting foodscapes from homelessness into Housing First in Kingston, Ontario. Health & Place, 59, 102197–102197.

Harris, M., Gadermann, A., Norena, M., To, M., Hubley, A. M., Aubry, T., Hwang, S. W., & Palepu, A. (2019). Residential moves and its association with substance use, healthcare needs, and acute care use among homeless and vulnerably housed persons in Canada. International Journal of Public Health, 64(3), 399–409.

Hasford, J., Nelson, G., Worton, S. K., Macnaughton, E., MacLeod, T., Piat, M., Tsemberis, S., Stergiopoulos, V., Distasio, J., Aubry, T., & Goering, P. (2019). Knowledge translation and implementation of housing first in Canada: A qualitative assessment of capacity building needs for an evidence-based program. Evaluation and Program Planning, 75, 1–9.

Jadidzadeh, A., & Falvo, N. (2019). Patterns of exits from housing in a homelessness system of care: the case of Calgary, Alberta. Housing Studies, 34(1), 66–91.

Jadidzadeh, A., Falvo, N., & Dutton, D. J. (2020). Cost savings of Housing First in a non-experimental setting. Canadian Public Policy, 46(1), 23–36.

Kerman, N., Sylvestre, J., Aubry, T., & Distasio, J. (2018). The effects of housing stability on service use among homeless adults with mental illness in a randomized controlled trial of housing first. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1), 190–190.

Kerman, N., Sylvestre, J., Aubry, T., & Schütz, C. G. (2019). Predictors of mental health recovery in homeless adults with mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 55(4), 631–640.

Kidd, S., Thistle, J., Beaulieu, T., O’Grady, B., & Gaetz, S. (2019). A national study of Indigenous youth homelessness in Canada. Public Health (London), 176, 163–171.

Kirst, M., Friesdorf, R., Ta, M., Amiri, A., Hwang, S. W., Stergiopoulos, V., & O’Campo, P. (2020). Patterns and effects of social integration on housing stability, mental health and substance use outcomes among participants in a randomized controlled Housing First trial. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 265, 113481–113481.

Latimer, E. A., Rabouin, D., Cao, Z., Ly, A., Powell, G., Adair, C. E., … Veldhuizen, S. R. (2019). Cost-effectiveness of Housing First Intervention With Intensive Case Management Compared With Treatment as Usual for Homeless Adults With Mental Illness: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Network Open, 2(8), e199782–e199782.

Latimer, E. A., Rabouin, D., Cao, Z., Ly, A., Powell, G., Aubry, T., Hwang, S. W.,… Goering, P. N. (2017). Costs of services for homeless people with mental illness in 5 Canadian cities: a large prospective follow-up study. CMAJ Open, 5(3), E576–E585.

Marsella, O., Forchuk, C., & Oudshoorn, A. (2020). Exploring harm reduction among Canadian veterans experiencing homelessness. Journal of Military, Veteran and Family Health, 6(2), 17–25.

Marshall, C. A., Boland, L., Westover, L. A., Marcellus, B., Weil, S., & Wickett, S. (2020). Effectiveness of interventions targeting community integration among individuals with lived experiences of homelessness: A systematic review. Health & Social Care in the Community, 28(6), 1843–1862.

Macnaughton, E., Nelson, G., Worton, S. K., Tsemberis, S., Stergiopoulos, V., Aubry, T., … Goering, P. (2018). Navigating complex implementation contexts: Overcoming barriers and achieving outcomes in a national initiative to scale out Housing First in Canada. American Journal of Community Psychology, 62(1-2), 135–149.

McParland, K., Rousseau-Thomas, J., & Waegemakers Schiff, J. (2019). A critical review of research and policy in youth-focussed Housing First. Canadian Review of Social Policy (1987), 79, 50–.

Mejia-Lancheros, C., Lachaud, J., Stergiopoulos, V., Matheson, F. I., Nisenbaum, R., O’Campo, P., & Hwang, S. W. (2020). Effect of Housing First on violence-related traumatic brain injury in adults with experiences of homelessness and mental illness: findings from the At Home/Chez Soi randomised trial, Toronto site. BMJ Open, 10(12), e038443–e038443.

Mejia-Lancheros, C., Lachaud, J., Woodhall-Melnik, J., O’Campo, P., Hwang, S. W., & Stergiopoulos, V. (2021). Longitudinal interrelationships of mental health discrimination and stigma with housing and well-being outcomes in adults with mental illness and recent experience of homelessness. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 268, 113463–113463.

Nelson, G., Aubry, T., Tsemberis, S., & Macnaughton, E. (2020). Psychology and public policy: The story of a Canadian Housing First project for homeless people with mental illness. Canadian Psychology = Psychologie Canadienne, 61(3), 257–268.

Nelson, G., Caplan, R., MacLeod, T., Macnaughton, E., Cherner, R., Aubry, T., … Goering, P. (2017). What happens after the demonstration phase? The sustainability of Canada’s At Home/Chez Soi Housing First programs for homeless persons with mental illness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 59(1-2), 144–157.

Oudshoorn, A., Forchuk, C., Hall, J., Smith-Carrier, T., & Van Berkum, A. (2018). An evaluation of a Housing First program for chronically homeless women. Journal of Social Inclusion, 9(2), 34–.

Paradis, E. (2016). Outsiders within: Claiming discursive space at national homelessness conferences in Canada. Social Inclusion, 4(4), 97–107.

Porter, B. (2021). Implementing the right to adequate housing under the national housing strategy act: The international human rights framework. Canada: The National Right to Housing Network. NRHN OFHA Report Cover 2021 (

Schwan, K., Vaccaro, M. E., Reid, L., & Ali, N. (2021). Implementation of the right to housing for women, girls, and gender diverse people in Canada. Canada: The National Right to Housing Network.  Microsoft Word – EN_CHRC_13.docx (

Stergiopoulos, V., Naidu, A., Schuler, A., Bekele, T., Nisenbaum, R., Jbilou, J., … Rourke, S. B. (2019). Housing stability and neurocognitive functioning in homeless adults with mental illness: A subgroup analysis of the At Home/Chez Soi study. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 10, 865–865.

Urbanoski, K., Veldhuizen, S., Krausz, M., Schutz, C., Somers, J. M., Kirst, M., … Goering, P. (2018). Effects of comorbid substance use disorders on outcomes in a Housing First intervention for homeless people with mental illness. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 113(1), 137–145.

Waegemakers Schiff, J., & Rook, J. (2012). Housing first: Where is the evidence? Toronto: Homeless Hub.

Wallace, B., Pauly, B., Perkin, K., & Cross, G. (2019). Where’s the housing? Housing and income outcomes of a transitional program to end homelessness. Journal of Poverty, 23(2), 161–178.

Whisler, A., Dosani, N., To, M. J., O’Brien, K., Young, S., & Hwang, S. W. (2021). The effect of a Housing First intervention on primary care retention among homeless individuals with mental illness. PloS One, 16(2), e0246859–e0246859.

Woolley, E. (2015). Why wasn’t homelessness a social problem until the 1980s? Homeless Hub.

Yazdani, K., Nikoo, M., Sayre, E. C., Choi, F., Jang, K., & Krausz, R. M. (2020). The impact of employment on recovery among individuals who are homeless with severe mental illness in the Vancouver At Home/Chez Soi trial. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 55(12), 1619–1627.


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Understanding Homelessness in Canada Copyright © 2022 by Kristy Buccieri, James Davy, Cyndi Gilmer, and Nicole Whitmore is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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