Researchers who participated in recorded interviews for this book are highlighted in bold. To learn more about them, please visit the “Meet the Researchers” page. 

Abramovich, A., de Oliveira, C., Kiran, T., Iwajomo, T., Ross, L. E., & Kurdyak, P. (2020). Assessment of health conditions and health service use among transgender patients in Canada. JAMA Netw Open, 3(8),

Abramovich, A., Lam, J. S. H., & Chowdhury, M. (2020). A transgender refugee woman experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and homelessness. Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), 192(1), E9–E11.

Andermann, A., Bloch, G., Goel, R., Brcic, V., Salvalaggio, G., Twan, S., … Pottie, K. (2020). Caring for patients with lived experience of homelessness. Canadian Family Physician, 66(8), 563–570. PMC7430777

Asare, A. O., Wong, A. M., Maurer, D., & Nishimura, M. (2019). Access to vision services by vulnerable populations in Canada: A scoping review. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 30(1), 6–27.

Baggett, T. P., Liauw, S. S., & Hwang, S. W. (2018). Cardiovascular disease and homelessness. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 71(22), 2585–2597.

Baumann, R. M., Hamilton-Wright, S., Riley, D. L., Brown, K., Hunt, C., Michalak, A., & Matheson, F. I. (2019). Experiences of violence and head injury among women and transgender women sex workers. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 16(3), 278–288.

Chiu, S., Redelmeier, D. A., Tolomiczenko, G., Kiss, A., & Hwang, S. W. (2009). The health of homeless immigrants. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 63(11), 943-948.

Crowe, C. (2019). A knapsack full of dreams: memoirs of a street nurse. Victoria, BC: FriesenPress.

Crowe, C., & Baker, N. (2007). Dying for a home: homeless activists speak out. Toronto, ON: Between the Lines.

Daiski, I. (2007). Perspectives of homeless people on their health and health needs priorities. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 58(3), 273-281.

D’Souza, S., M., Mirza, N. A., & Nairy Karkada, S. (2021). Development of a foot care model to determine the risk of foot problems among homeless adults in Canada. Health & Social Care in the Community.

Frankish, C. J., Hwang, S. W., & Quantz, D. (2005). Homelessness and health in Canada: Research lessons and priorities. CJPH, 95, S23-S29.

Gentil, L., Grenier, G., Bamvita, J. M., & Fleury, M. (2020). Satisfaction with health and community services among homeless and formerly homeless individuals in Quebec, Canada. Health & Social Care in the Community, 28(1), 22–33.

Giesbrecht, M., Stajduhar, K. I., Mollison, A., Pauly, B., Reimer-Kirkham, S., McNeil, R., … Rose, C. (2018). Hospitals, clinics, and palliative care units: Place-based experiences of formal healthcare settings by people experiencing structural vulnerability at the end-of-life. Health & Place, 53, 43–51.

Gilmer, C., & Buccieri, K. (2020). Homeless patients associate clinician bias with suboptimal care for mental illness, addictions, and chronic pain. Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, 11.

Guirguis-Younger, M., McNeil, R., & Hwang, S. W. (Eds.). (2014). Homelessness and health in Canada. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. Homelessness and Health in Canada (

Hardill, K. (2007). From the grey nuns to the streets: A critical history of outreach nursing in Canada. Public Health Nursing, 24(1), 91–97.

Hossain, R., Ramsay, N., Moore, M., & Milo, M. (2018). Health advocacy training through research‐based theatre. Medical Education, 52(11), 1187–1188.

Huynh, L., Henry, B., & Dosani, N. (2015). Minding the gap: Access to palliative care and the homeless. BMC Palliative Care, 14, 62.

Hwang, S. W. (2001). Homelessness and health. CMAJ, 164(2), 229-233. 229.full.pdf (

Hwang, S. W., Wilkins, R., Tjepkema, M., O’Campo, P. J., & Dunn, J. R. (2009). Mortality among residents of shelters, rooming houses, and hotels in Canada: 11 year follow-up study. BMJ, 339. doi:

Jaworsky, D., Gadermann, A., Duhoux, A., Naismith, T. E., Norerna, M., To, M. J., Hwang, S. W., & Palepu, A. (2016). Residential stability reduces unmet health care needs and emergency department utilization among a cohort of homeless and vulnerably housed persons in Canada. Journal of Urban Health, 93, 666-681.

Jiang, S., Mikhail, M., Slomovic, J., Pereira, A., Lebovic, G., Noel, C., & Lichter, M. (2020). Prevalence and impact of eye disease in an urban homeless and marginally housed population. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, 55(1), 76–81.

Kelly, K., & Caputo, T. (2007). Health and street/homeless youth. Journal of Health Psychology, 12(5), 726-736.

Khandor, E., Mason, K., Chambers, C., Rossiter, K., Cowan, L., & Hwang, S. W. (2011). Access to primary health care among homeless adults in Toronto, Canada: Results from the street health survey. Open Med, 5(2), e94-e103. PMID: 21915240

Lawrie, K., Charow, R., Giuliani, M., & Papadakos, J. (2020). Homelessness, cancer and health literacy: A scoping review. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 31(1), 81–104.

Leung, A. K., To, M. J., Luong, L., Vahabi, Z. S., Gonçalves, V. L., Song, J., & Hwang, S. W. (2017). The effect of advance directive completion on hospital care among chronically homeless persons: A prospective cohort study. Journal of Urban Health, 94(1), 43–53.

Liu, M., & Hwang, S. W. (2021). Health care for homeless people. Nature Reviews Disease Primers 7,5.

Mago, A., Brondani, M. A., MacEntee, M. I., & Frankish, C. J. (2018). A model pathway to oral health care for homeless people. J Can Dent Assoc, 84, i10.

Magwood, O., Hanemaayer, A., Saad, A., Salvalaggio, G., Bloch, G., Moledina, A., Pinto, N., Ziha, L., Geurguis, M., Aliferis, A., Kpade, V., Arya, N., Aubry, T., & Pottie, K. (2020). Determinants of implementation of a clinical practice guideline for homeless health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(21), 7938.

Mejia-Lancheros, C., Lachaud, J., Nisenbaum, R., Wang, A., Stergiopoulos, V., Hwang, S. W., & O’Campo, P. (2020a). Dental problems and chronic diseases in mentally ill homeless adults: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 419.

Mejia-Lancheros, C., Lachaud, J., Stergiopoulos, V., Matheson, F. I., Nisenbaum, R., O’Campo, P., & Hwang, S. W. (2020b). Effect of housing first on violence-related traumatic brain injury in adults with experiences of homelessness and mental illness: Findings from the at home/chez soi randomised trial, Toronto site. BMJ Open, 10(12), e038443–e038443.

Merdsoy, L., Lambert, S., & Sherman, J. (2020). Perceptions, needs and preferences of chronic disease self‐management support among men experiencing homelessness in Montreal. Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy, 23(6), 1420–1430.

Moravac, C. C. (2018). Reflections of homeless women and women with mental health challenges on breast and cervical cancer screening decisions: Power, trust, and communication with care providers. Frontiers in Public Health, 6, 30.

Nikoo, N., Javidanbardan, S., Akm, M., Hakobyan, S., Nikoo, M., Kwan, C., … Krausz, M. (2019). Hepatitis C prevalence and associated risk factors among individuals who are homeless and diagnosed with mental illness: At home / chez soi study, Vancouver, BC. European Journal of Public Health, 29(2), 242–247.

Noel, C. W., Mok, F., Wu, V., Eskander, A., Yao, C. M. K. L., Hwang, S. W., … Lee, J. M. (2020). Hearing loss and hearing needs in an adult homeless population: A prospective cross-sectional study. CMAJ Open, 8(1), E199–E204.

Oosman, S., Weber, G., Ogunson, M., & Bath, B. (2019). Enhancing access to physical therapy services for people experiencing poverty and homelessness: The lighthouse pilot project. Physiotherapy Canada, 71(2), 176–186.

Palayew, A., Kaur, H., Magwood, O., Greenaway, C., Mayhew, A., Hatcher-Roberts, J., & Pottie, K. (2018). P2‐112: Values, preferences, and acceptability of hepatitis C testing and treatment in the homeless and vulnerably housed: A scoping review. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 25(S2), 163–164.

Paradis-Gagné, E., Pariseau-Legault, P., Villemure, M., & Chauvette, S. (2020). A critical ethnography of outreach nursing for people experiencing homelessness. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 37(4), 189–202.

Pottie, K., Kendall, C. E., Aubry, T., Magwood, O., Andermann, A., Salvalaggio, G., … Hwang, S. W., Stergiopoulos, V., & Tugwell, P. (2020). Clinical guideline for homeless and vulnerably housed people, and people with lived homelessness experience. Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), 192(10), E240–E254.

Ramsay, N., Hossain, R., Moore, M., Milo, M., & Brown, A. (2019). Health care while homeless: Barriers, facilitators, and the lived experiences of homeless individuals accessing health care in a Canadian regional municipality. Qualitative Health Research, 29(13), 1839–1849.

Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario. (2004). Position statement: Homelessness. RNAO: Ontario.

Richard, L., Booth, R., Rayner, J., Clemens, K. K., Forchuk, C., & Shariff, S. Z. (2021). Testing, infection and complication rates of COVID-19 among people with a recent history of homelessness in Ontario, Canada: A retrospective cohort study. CMAJ Open, 9(1), E1–E9.

Rivera, L. A., Henschke, M. T., Khoo, E., Ing, S., Bae, S. J., Rice, C. M., … Forseth, M. H. (2018). A modeling study exploring the impact of homelessness on rostered primary care utilization in Calgary, Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 109(4), 451–458.

Santos Salas, A., Watanabe, S. M., Tarumi, Y., Wildeman, T., Hermosa García, A. M., Adewale, B., & Duggleby, W. (2019). Social disparities and symptom burden in populations with advanced cancer: specialist palliative care providers’ perspectives. Supportive Care in Cancer, 27(12), 4733–4744.

Song, M. J., Nikoo, M., Choi, F., Schütz, C. G., Jang, K., & Krausz, R. M. (2018). Childhood trauma and lifetime traumatic brain injury among individuals who are homeless. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 33(3), 185–190.

Stajduhar, K. I., Giesbrecht, M., Mollison, A., Dosani, N., & McNeil, R. (2020). Caregiving at the margins: An ethnographic exploration of family caregivers experiences providing care for structurally vulnerable populations at the end-of-life. Palliative Medicine, 34(7), 946–953.

Stajduhar, K. I., Mollison, A., Giesbrecht, M., McNeil, R., Pauly, B., Reimer-Kirkham, S., … Rounds, K. (2019). “Just too busy living in the moment and surviving”: Barriers to accessing health care for structurally vulnerable populations at end-of-life. BMC Palliative Care, 18(1), 11.

Sumalinog, R., Harrington, K., Dosani, N., & Hwang, S. W. (2017). Advance care planning, palliative care, and end-of-life care interventions for homeless people: A systematic review. Palliative Medicine, 31(2), 109-119. doi: 10.1177/0269216316649334

Vogel, M., Frank, A., Choi, F., Strehlau, V., Nikoo, N., Nikoo, M., … Schütz, C. G. (2017). Chronic pain among homeless persons with mental illness. Pain Medicine, 18(12), 2280–2288.

Wales, J., Kalia, S., Moineddin, R., & Husain, A. (2020). The impact of socioeconomic status on place of death among patients receiving home palliative care in Toronto, Canada: A retrospective cohort study. Journal of Palliative Care, 35(3), 167–173.

Webster, P. (2017). Bringing homeless deaths to light. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 189(11), E446–E447.

West, K. J., Wrobel, B., Pallotta, S., & Coatsworth, A. (2020). Bearing witness: Exploring the end-of-life needs of homeless persons and barriers to appropriate care. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 82(1), 63–91.

Whisler, A., Dosani, N., To, M. J., O’Brien, K., Young, S., & Hwang, S. W. (2021). The effect of a housing first intervention on primary care retention among homeless individuals with mental illness. PloS One, 16(2), e0246859–e0246859.

Wu, V., Noel, C. W., Forner, D., Mok, F., Zirkle, M., Eskander, A., … Lee, J. M. (2020). Otolaryngology needs among an adult homeless population: a prospective study. Journal of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 49(1), 1–47.

Zhang, P., Wiens, K., Wang, R., Luong, L., Ansara, D., Gower, S., … Hwang, S. W. (2019). Cold weather conditions and risk of hypothermia among people experiencing homelessness: Implications for prevention strategies. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(18), 3259.


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Understanding Homelessness in Canada Copyright © 2022 by Kristy Buccieri, James Davy, Cyndi Gilmer, and Nicole Whitmore is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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