Researchers who participated in recorded interviews for this book are highlighted in bold. To learn more about them, please visit the “Meet the Researchers” page. 

Alberton, A. M., Angell, G. B., Gorey, K. M., & Grenier, S. (2020). Homelessness among Indigenous peoples in Canada: The impacts of child welfare involvement and educational achievement. Children and Youth Services Review, 111, 104846.

Ansloos, J. P., & Wager, A. C. (2020). Surviving in the cracks: A qualitative study with indigenous youth on homelessness and applied community theatre. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 33(1), 50–65.

Ballard, M., Coughlin, J., & Martin, D. (2020). Reconciling with Minoaywin: First Nations Elders’ advice to promote healing from forced displacement. Canadian Journal on Aging, 39(2), 169–177.

Bezgrebelna, M., McKenzie, K., Wells, S., Ravindran, A., Kral, M., Christensen, J., Stergiopoulos, V., Gaetz, S., & Kidd, S. A. (2021). Climate change, weather, housing precarity, and homelessness: A systematic review of reviews. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 18, 5812.

Bingham, B., Moniruzzaman, A., Patterson, M., Distasio, J., Sareen, J., O’Neil, J., & Somers, J. M. (2019a). Indigenous and non-Indigenous people experiencing homelessness and mental illness in two Canadian cities: A retrospective analysis and implications for culturally informed action. BMJ Open, 9(4), e024748–e024748.

Bingham, B., Moniruzzaman, A., Patterson, M., Sareen, J., Distasio, J., O’Neil, J., & Somers, J. M. (2019b). Gender differences among Indigenous Canadians experiencing homelessness and mental illness. BMC Psychology, 7(1), 57–57.

Bono, K. (2019). The faces of Indigenous homelessness: The perpetual Inuit housing struggle. Master’s Thesis. McGill University.

Bowra, A., & Mashford-Pringle, A. (2021). More than a structure: Exploring the relationship between Indigenous homemaking practices and wholistic wellbeing. Wellbeing, Space and Society, 2.

Brown, J., Knol, D., Prevost-Derbecker, S., & Andrushko, K. (2007). Housing for Aboriginal youth in the inner city of Winnipeg. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 3(2), 56–64.

Caplan, R., Nelson, G., Distasio, J., Isaak, C., Edel, B., Piat, M., Macnaughton, E., Kirst, M., Patterson, M., Aubry, T., Mulligan, S., & Goering, P. (2020). Indigenous and non‐Indigenous parents separated from their children and experiencing homelessness and mental illness in Canada. Journal of Community Psychology, 48(8), 2753–2772.

Cunningham, J. (2019). Towards a grounded understanding of the forms of homelessness experienced by Indigenous women in Canada. Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 49(3), 29.

De Leeuw, S., Greenwood, M., & Farrales, M. (2021). Indigeneity and wellness: Critically understanding the health of Indigenous peoples and communities. In K. Chamberlain & A. Lyons (Eds.). Routledge International Handbook of Critical Issues in Health and Illness. New York: Routledge International Handbooks.

Distasio, J., Zell, S., & Snyder, M. (2018). At home in Winnipeg: Localizing housing first as a culturally responsive approach to understanding and addressing urban Indigenous homelessness. Winnipeg: Institute of Urban Studies.

Dunn, K. (2019). A comparative analysis of Indigenous and non-Indigenous homeless youth in Canada. Master’s Thesis. University of Guelph.

Falvo, N. (2021). Improving housing stability among Indigenous residents at horizon housing. Calgary: Nick Falvo Consulting. FINAL_Housing-Stability-for-Indigenous-Residents_Report.pdf

Feir, D. L., & Akee, R. (2018). Estimating institutionalization and homelessness for status First Nations in Canada: A method and implications. International Indigenous Policy Journal, 9(4).

Firestone, M., Syrette, J., Jourdain, T., Recollet, V., & Smylie, J. (2019). “I feel safe just coming here because there are other Native brothers and sisters”: Findings from a community-based evaluation of the Niiwin Wendaanimak Four Winds Wellness Program. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 110(4), 404–413.

Government of Canada. (2018). Reaching home: Canada’s homelessness strategy directives. Government of Canada, Ottawa. Reaching Home: Canada’s Homelessness Strategy Directives –

Government of Canada. (2019). National housing strategy act. Government of Canada, Ottawa. National Housing Strategy Act (

Greenwood, M. & Lindsay N. M. A. (2019). A commentary on land, health and Indigenous knowledge(s). Global Health Promotion, 26(3), 82-86.

Henry, R. (2015). My life story, my youth. In Inclusion Working Group, Canadian Observatory on Homelessness (Eds.). Toronto, ON: Homeless Hub. Chapter 6:  My Life Story My Youth.pdf

Ion, A., Greene, J., Masching, R., Poitras, M., Brownlee, P., St. Denys, R., 
 Anaquod, J. (2018). Stable homes, strong families: reimagining housing policies and programs for Indigenous peoples living with and affected by HIV and AIDS in Canada. Housing and Society, 45(2), 118–138.

Kidd, S. A., Gaetz, S., O’Grady, B., Schwan, K., Zhao, H., Lopes, K., & Wang, W. (2021). The second national Canadian homeless youth survey: Mental health and addiction findings. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 66(10), 897-905.

Kidd, S. A., Greco, S. & McKenzie, K. (2021). Global climate implications for homelessness: A scoping review. J Urban Health, 98, 385–393.

Kidd, S., Thistle, J., Beaulieu, T., O’Grady, B., & Gaetz, S. (2019). A national study of Indigenous youth homelessness in Canada. Public Health (London), 176, 163–171.

Kolahdooz, F., Nader, F., Yi, K. J., & Sharma, S. (2015). Understanding the social determinants of health among Indigenous Canadians: Priorities for health promotion policies and actions. Global Health Action, 8(1), 27968–27968.

National Action Plan. (2021). 2021 missing and murdered Indigenous women, girls, and 2SLGBTQQIA+ people national action plan: Ending violence against Indigenous women, girls, and 2SLGBTQQIA+ people. Canada.

Patrick, C. (2014). Aboriginal homelessness in Canada: A literature review. Toronto: The Canadian Observatory on Homelessness.

Pijl, E. M., & Belanger, Y. D. (2020). Lost in transition: Entering the liminal space of rural homelessness in a small prairie town. Journal of Social Distress and Homeless, 1–9.

Redvers, N., Nadeau, M., & Prince, D. (2020). Urban land-based healing: A northern intervention strategy. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 16(2), 322–337.

Rotondi, M. A., O’Campo, P., O’Brien, K., Firestone, M., Wolfe, S. H., Bourgeois, C., & Smylie, J. K. (2017). Our health counts Toronto: Using respondent-driven sampling to unmask census undercounts of an urban indigenous population in Toronto, Canada. BMJ Open, 7(12), e018936–e018936.

Schiff, R., Buccieri, K., Waegemakers Schiff, J, Kauppi, C., & Riva, M. (2020). COVID-19 and pandemic planning in the context of rural and remote homelessness. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 111(6), 967–970.

Shaikh, A., & Rawal, H. (2019). Interconnections among homelessness, family separation, and mental health: Implications for multi-sectoral social services. Journal of Social Service Research, 45(4), 543–557.

Smith, E., Milaney, K., Henderson, R. I., & Crowshoe, L. (2021). Adverse childhood experiences and health among indigenous persons experiencing homelessness. BMC Public Health, 21(1), 85–85.

Statistics Canada. (2020). 2016 census Aboriginal community portraits. Canada: Statistics Canada.

Stewart, S. (2018). Supporting Indigenous youth experiencing homelessness. In S. Kidd, N. Slesnick, T. Frederick, J. Karabanow, & S. Gaetz (eds.), Mental health & addiction interventions for youth experiencing homelessness: Practical strategies for front-line providers. Toronto, ON: Canadian Observatory on Homelessness.

Stewart, S. (2019). Family counselling as decolonization: Exploring an Indigenous social-constructivist approach in clinical practice. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 14(1), 43-56.

Thistle, J. (2017.) Indigenous definition of homelessness in Canada. Toronto: Canadian Observatory on Homelessness Press.

Thistle, J. (2019). From the ashes. My story of being MĂ©tis, homeless and finding my way. Simon Schuster: Toronto, Canada

Thistle, J., & Smylie, J. (2020). Pekiwewin (coming home): Advancing good relations with Indigenous people experiencing homelessness. Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), 192(10), E257–E259.

Timler, K., Varcoe, C., & Brown, H. (2019). Growing beyond nutrition: How a prison garden program highlights the potential of shifting from food security to food sovereignty for Indigenous peoples. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 14(2), 95–114.

Victor, J., Shouting, M., DeGroot, C., Vonkeman, L., Brave Rock, M., & Hunt, R. (2019). I’taamohkanoohsin (everyone comes together): (Re)connecting Indigenous people experiencing homelessness and substance misuse to Blackfoot ways of knowing. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 14(1), 42–59.

Von Riesen, K. (2020). Providing meaningful spiritual care to Indigenous populations experiencing homelessness. Master’s Thesis. University of Manitoba.

Young, M. G., & Manion, K. (2017). Harm reduction through housing first: an assessment of the Emergency Warming Centre in Inuvik, Canada. Harm Reduction Journal, 14(1), 8–8.


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Understanding Homelessness in Canada Copyright © 2022 by Kristy Buccieri, James Davy, Cyndi Gilmer, and Nicole Whitmore is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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