# Chapter 9: Solution to Exercises

## 9.1: Compound Interest Fundamentals

1. Calculate the periodic interest rate if the nominal interest rate is 7.75% compounded monthly.

Solution:

\begin{align} \text{Periodic Rate}, i&=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate}}{\text{Compounds per Year}}\\ &=\frac{7.75\%}{12}\\ &= 0.6458\%\;\text{per month} \end{align}

The periodic interest rate is 0.65%.

1. Calculate the compounding frequency for a nominal interest rate of 9.6% if the periodic interest rate is 0.8%.

Solution:

\begin{align} \text{Compounds Per Year}, C/Y&=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate}}{\text{Periodic Rate}}\\ &=\frac{9.6\%}{0.8\%}\\ &=12\;(\text{monthly}) \end{align}

The compounding frequency is 12 (monthly).

1. Calculate the nominal interest rate if the periodic interest rate is 2.0875% per quarter.

Solution:

\begin{align} \text{Nominal Rate}, I/Y&=(\text{Periodic Rate}) \times (\text{Compounds Per Year})\\ &= 2.0875\% \times 4\\ &=8.35\%\; \text{compounded quarterly} \end{align}

The nominal interest rate is 8.35% compounded quarterly.

1. After a period of three months, Alese saw one interest deposit of $176.40 for a principal of$9,800. What nominal rate of interest is Alese earning?

Solution:

Step 1: First convert the interest amount into a periodic interest rate per quarter.

\begin{align} \text{Portion}& = \text{Rate} \times \text{Base}\\ I& = i \times PV\\ \176.40 &= i \times \9,\!800\\ i&=\frac{\176.40}{\9,\!800}\\ i&=0.018 \;\text{or}\; 1.8\%\; \text{per quarter} \end{align}

Step 2: Now convert the result in Step 1 to a nominal rate.

\begin{align} \text{Nominal Rate, I/Y}&=(\text{Periodic Rate}) \times (\text{Compounds Per Year})\\ &= 1.8\% \times 4\\ &=7.2\%\; \text{compounded quarterly} \end{align}

Alese is earning 7.2% compounded quarterly.

## 9.2: Determining the Future Value

1. Find the future value if 53,000 is invested at 6% compounded monthly for 4 years and 3 months. Solution: Step 1: Given information: $PV=\53,\!000$; $C/Y=\text{monthly}=12$; $t=4\frac{3}{12}\;\text{years}$; $I/Y=6\%$ Step 2: Find $i$. $i=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate (I/Y)}}{\text{Compound per year (C/Y)}}=\frac{6\%}{12}=0.5\%$ Step 3: Find $n$. $n = (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y= \left(4\frac{3}{12}\right) \times 12=4.25 \times 12=51$ Step 4: Solve for $FV$. \begin{align} FV &= PV(1 + i)^{51}\\ &= \53,\!000(1 + 0.005)^{51}\\ &= \53,\!000(1.005)^{51}\\ &= \68,\!351.02 \end{align} The future value is68,351.02.

Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.2 Question 1
N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y
51 6 -53,000 0 ? 12 12

1. Find the future value if 24,500 is invested at 4.1% compounded annually for 4 years; then 5.15% compounded quarterly for 1 year, 9 months; then 5.35% compounded monthly for 1 year, 3 months. Solution: Step 1: Find $FV_1$. $i=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate (I/Y)}}{\text{Compounds per Year (C/Y)}}=\frac{4.1\%}{1}=4.1\%$ $n = (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y=4 \times 1=4$ \begin{align} FV_1 &= PV_1(1 + i)^n\\ &= \24,\!500 (1 + 0.041)^4\\ &= \24,\!500(1.041)^4\\ &= \28,\!771.93049\; \text{(This becomes PV for the next calculation in Step 2.)} \end{align} Step 2: Find $FV_2$. $i=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate (I/Y)}}{\text{Compounds per Year (C/Y)}}=\frac{5.15\%}{4}=1.2875\%$ $n = (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y= \left(1\frac{9}{12}\right) \times 4=1.75 \times 4=7$ \begin{align} FV_2 &= PV_2(1 + i)^n\\ &= \28,\!771.93049 (1.012875)^7\\ &= \31,\!467.33516\; \text{(This becomes PV for the next calculation in Step 3.)} \end{align} Step 3: Find $FV_3$. $i=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate (I/Y)}}{\text{Compounds per Year (C/Y)}}=\frac{5.35\%}{12}=0.4458\overline{3}\%$ $n = (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y= \left(1\frac{3}{12}\right) \times 12=1.25 \times 12=15$ \begin{align} FV_3 &= PV_3(1 + i)^n\\ &= \31,\!467.33516 (1.004458\overline{3})^{15}\\ &= \33,\!638.67 \end{align} The future value is33,638.67.

Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.2 Question 2
Step N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y
1 4 4.1 -24,500 0 ? 1 1
2 7 5.15 ±(FV from Step 1) 0 ? 4 4
3 15 5.35 ±(FV from Step 2) 0 ? 12 12
1. Nirdosh borrowed 9,300 4¼ years ago at 6.35% compounded semi-annually. The interest rate changed to 6.5% compounded quarterly 1¾ years ago. What amount of money today is required to pay off this loan? Solution: Figure 9.2.3: Timeline [Image Description] Step 1: Find $FV_1$. $i=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate (I/Y)}}{\text{Compounds per Year (C/Y)}}=\frac{6.35\%}{2}=3.175\%$ $n=(\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y=2.5 \times 2=5$ \begin{align} FV_ 1&=PV(1 + i)^n\\ &= \9,\!300(1. 03175)^5\\ &= \10,\!873.14892\; \text{(This becomes PV for the next calculation in Step 2.)} \end{align} Step 2: Find $FV_2$. $i=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate (I/Y)}}{\text{Compounds per Year (C/Y)}}=\frac{6.5\%}{4}=1.625\%$ $n = (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y=1.75 \times 4=7$ \begin{align} FV_ 2&=PV(1 + i)^n\\ &= \10,\!873.14892(1. 001625)^7\\ &= \12,\!171.92\; \text{(Round at this step.)} \end{align} It is required today12,171.92 to pay off the loan.

Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.2 Question 3
Step N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y
1 5 6.35 +9,300 0 ? 2 2
2 7 6.5 ± (FV from Step 1) 0 ? 4 4

## 9.3: Determining the Present Value

1. A debt of 37,000 is owed 21 months from today. If prevailing interest rates are 6.55% compounded quarterly, what amount should the creditor be willing to accept today? Solution: Step 1: Given information: $FV=\37,\!000$; $I/Y= 6.55\%$; $t=\frac{21}{12}=1.75\;\text{years}$; $C/Y=\text{quarterly}=4$. Step 2: Find $i$. $i=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate (I/Y)}}{\text{Compounds per Year (C/Y)}}=\frac{6.55\%}{4}=1.6375\%$ Step 3: Find $n$. $n = (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y=\frac{21}{12} \times 4=7$ Step 4: Solve for $PV$. \begin{align} PV&=\frac{FV}{(1+i)^n}\\ &=\frac{\37,\!000}{(1.016375)^7}\\ &=\33,\!023.56 \end{align} The creditor should be willing to accept33,023.56 today?

Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.3 Question 1
N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y
7 6.55 ? 0 37,000 4 4
1. For the first 4½ years, a loan was charged interest at 4.5% compounded semi-annually.  For the next 4 years, the rate was 3.25% compounded annually.  If the maturity value was  45,839.05 at the end of the 8½ years, what was the principal of the loan? Solution: Figure 9.3.2: Timeline [Image Description] Step 1: Find $PV_1$. $i=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate (I/Y)}}{\text{Compounds per Year (C/Y)}}=\frac{3.25\%}{1}=3.25\%$ $n = \text{(Number of Years)} \times C/Y=4 \times 1=4$ \begin{align} PV_1&=\frac{FV}{(1+i)^n}\\ &=\frac{\45,\!839.05}{(1.0325)^4}\\ &=\40,\!334.37829\;\text{(This becomes FV for the next calculation in Step 2.)} \end{align} Step 2: Find $PV_2$. $i=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate (I/Y)}}{\text{Compounds per Year (C/Y)}}=\frac{4.5\%}{2}=2.25\%$ $n = (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y=4.5 \times 2=9$ \begin{align} PV_2&=\frac{FV}{(1+i)^n}\\ &=\frac{\40,\!334.37829}{(1.0225)^9}\\ &=\33,\!014.56\;\text{(Round at this step.)} \end{align} The principal of the loan is33,014.56.

Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.3 Question 2
Steps N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y
1 4 3.25 ? 0 −45,839.05 1 1
2 9 4.5 ? 0 ±(PV from Step 1) 2 2

## 9.4: Equivalent Payments

1. A winning lottery ticket offers the following two options:
a) A single payment of $1,000,000 today or b)$250,000 today followed by annual payments of $300,000 for the next three years. If money can earn 9% compounded annually, which option should the winner select? How much better is that option in current dollars? Solution: a) The$1,000,000 is already today.

b) To fairly compare the payment plan, move all money to today as well.

$\text{Focal Date} = \text{Today}$

Step 1: Find $i$.

$i=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate (I/Y)}}{\text{Compounds per Year (C/Y)}}=\frac{9\%}{1}=9\%$

Step 2: Find $n$ of the payments.

$n= (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y$

Payment #1: $n= 1 \times 1=1$
Payment #2: $n=2 \times 1=2$
Payment #3: $n=3 \times 1=3$

Step 3: Find the present value of the payments.

\begin{align} PV_1&=\frac{FV}{(1+i)^n}\\ &=\frac{\300,\!000}{(1.09)^1}\\ &=\275,\!229.3578 \end{align}

\begin{align} PV_2&=\frac{FV}{(1+i)^n}\\ &=\frac{\300,\!000}{(1.09)^2}\\ &=\252,\!503.998 \end{align}

\begin{align} PV_3&=\frac{FV}{(1+i)^n}\\ &=\frac{\300,\!000}{(1.09)^3}\\ &=\231,\!655.044 \end{align}

\begin{align} \text{Total Present Value Today}&=\250,\!000 + \275,\!229.3578 + \252,\!503.998 + \231,\!655.044\\ &=\1,\!009,\!388.40 \end{align}

Payment plan is better by $1,009,388.40 −$1,000,000 = $9,388.40. Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.4 Question 1 Payment N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y 1 1 9 ? 0 300,000 1 1 2 2 9 ? 0 300,000 1 1 3 3 9 ? 0 300,000 1 1 1. James is a debt collector. One of his clients has asked him to collect an outstanding debt from one of its customers. The customer has failed to pay three amounts:$1,600 eighteen months ago, $2,300 nine months ago, and$5,100 three months ago. In discussions with the customer, James finds she desires to clear up this situation and proposes a payment of $1,000 today,$4,000 nine months from now, and a final payment two years from now. The client normally charges 16.5% compounded quarterly on all outstanding debts. What is the amount of the third payment?

Solution:

$\text{Focal Date} = 2\; \text{years from today}$

Step 1: Find $i$.

$i=\frac{\text{Nominal Rate (I/Y)}}{\text{Compounds per Year (C/Y)}}=\frac{16.5\%}{4}=4.125\%$

Step 2: Find $n$ of the payments.

$n= (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y$

Payment #1: $n=3.5 \times 4=14$
Payment #2: $n=2.75 \times 4=11$
Payment #3: $n=2.25 \times 4=9$
Payment #4: $n=1.25 \times 4=5$
Payment #5: $n=2 \times 4=8$

Step 3: Find the future value of the payments.

$FV_1 = \1,\!600(1+0.04125)^{14} = \2,\!817.670366$
$FV_2 = \2,\!300(1+0.04125)^{11} = \3,\!587.839398$
$FV_3 = \5,\!100(1+0.04125)^{9} = \7,\!337.790461$
$FV_4 = \4,\!000(1+0.04125)^{5} = \4,\!895.928462$
$FV_5 = \1,\!000(1+0.04125)^{8} = \1,\!381.783859$

\begin{align} \text{Total Dated Debts} &= \text{Total Dated Payments}\\ FV_1 + FV_2 + FV_3 &= x + FV_4 + FV_5\\ \2,\!817.670366 + \3,\!587.839398 + \7,\!337.790461 &= x + \4,\!895.928462 + \1,\!381.783859\\ \13,\!743.30023 &= x + \6,\!277.712321\\ x &= \7,\!465.59 \end{align}

The amount of the third payment is $7,465.59. Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.4 Question 2 Payment N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y Original 1 14 16.5 1,600 0 ? 4 4 Original 2 11 16.5 2,300 0 ? 4 4 Original 3 9 16.5 5,100 0 ? 4 4 Proposed 1 8 16.5 1,000 0 ? 4 4 Proposed 2 5 16.5 4,000 0 ? 4 4 1. Four years ago, Aminata borrowed$5,000 from Randal with interest at 8% compounded quarterly to be repaid one year from today. Two years ago, Aminata borrowed another 2,500 from Randal at 6% compounded monthly to be repaid two years from today. Aminata would like to restructure the payments so that she can pay 15 months from today and 2½ years from today. The first payment is to be twice the size of the second payment. Randal accepts an interest rate of 6.27% compounded monthly on the proposed agreement. Calculate the amounts of each payment assuming the focal date is 15 months from today. Solution: First, calculate the amounts owing under Aminata’s original loans. Original Loan 1: $i=\frac{I/Y}{C/Y}=\frac{8\%}{4}=2\%$ $n= (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y=5 \times 4=20$ \begin{align} FV_1 &= PV(1 + i)^n\\ & = \5,\!000(1.02)^{20}\\ &=\7,\!429.74\;\text{(Due in 1 year from today.)} \end{align} Original Loan 2: $i=\frac{I/Y}{C/Y}=\frac{6\%}{12}=0.5\%$ $n= (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y=4 \times 12=48$ \begin{align} FV_2 &= PV(1 + i)^n\\ & = \2,\!500(1.005)^{48}\\ &=\3,\!176.22\; \text{(Due in 2 year from today.)} \end{align} Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.4 Question 3 Loan N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y 1 20 8 5,000 0 ? 4 4 2 48 6 2,500 0 ? 12 12 Now calculate the equivalent payments under the proposed arrangement: 1 year = 12 months 2 years = 24 months 2.5 years = 30 months Figure 9.4.3: Timeline [Image Description] $i=\frac{I/Y}{C/Y}=\frac{6.27\%}{12}=0.5225\%$ \begin{align} \text{Total Dated Debts} &= \text{Total Dated Payments}\\ FV_1 + PV_1 &= 2x + PV_2\\ 7,\!429.74 (1.005225)^3 +\frac{3,\!176.22}{(1.005225)^9} &= 2x + \frac{x}{(1.005225)^{15}}\\ 7,\!546.810744 + 3,\!030.686729 &= 2x + 0.924806x\\ \10,\!577.49747 &= 2.924806x\\ x &= \3,\!616.48\; \text{(second payment)}\\\\ 2x = 2(\3,\!616.48) &= 7,\!232.96\; \text{(first payment)} \end{align} The amount of each payment is7,232.96.

Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.4 Question 3 Calculating Payments
Payment N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y
Original 1 3 6.27 7,429.74 0 ? 12 12
Original 2 9 6.27 ? 0 3,176.22 12 12
Proposed 1 15 6.27 ? 0 1 12 12

## 9.5 Determining the Interest Rate

1. Your company paid an invoice five months late. If the original invoice was for $6,450 and the amount paid was$6,948.48, what monthly compounded interest rate is your supplier charging on late payments?

Solution:

Step 1: Given information:

$PV=\6,\!450$; $FV=\6,\!948.48$; $C/Y=\text{monthly}=12$

Step 2: Find $n$.

$n = (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y=\frac{5}{12} \times 12=5$

Step 3: Using the formula for $FV$, rearrange and solve for $i$.

\begin{align} FV &= PV(1 + i)^n\\ \6,\!948.48 &= \6,\!450(1 + i)^5\\ 1.077283 &= (1+i)^5\\ 1.077283^{\frac{1}{5}} &= (1+i)\\ 1.014999 &= 1 + i\\ i& = 0.014999 \end{align}

Step 4: Solve for the nominal rate, $I/Y$.

\begin{align} I/Y&=i \times 12\\ &=0.179999\\ &= 18\% \;\text{(compounded monthly)} \end{align}

The supplier is charging 18% compounded monthly on late payments?

Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.5 Question 1
N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y
5 ? −6,450 0 6,948.48 12 12
1. At what monthly compounded interest rate does it take five years for an investment to double?

Solution:

Step 1: Pick any two values for PV and FV where FV is double the PV.

$PV = \10,\!000$; $FV = \20,\!000$

Step 2: Find $n$.

$n = (\text{Number of Years}) \times C/Y=5 \times 12=60$

Step 3: Using the formula for $FV$ solve for $i$.

\begin{align} FV &= PV(1 + i)^n\\ \20,\!000&= \10,\!000(1 + i)^{60}\\ 2&= (1+i)^{60}\\ 2^{\frac{1}{60}}& = (1+i)\\ 1.011619 &= 1 + i\\ i& = 0.011619 \end{align}

Step 4: Solve for the nominal rate, $I/Y$.

\begin{align} \text{Nominal Rate}&=i \times 12\\ &=0.139428\\ &=13.94\% \;\text{compounded monthly} \end{align}

At monthly compounded interest rate does it take five years for an investment to double.

The investment will double in five years at 13.94% compounded monthly.

Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.5 Question 2
N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y
60 ? −10,000 0 20,000 12 12
1. Indiana just received a maturity value of 30,320.12 from a semi-annually compounded investment that paid 4%, 4.1%, 4.35%, 4.75%, and 5.5% in consecutive years. What amount of money did Indiana invest? What fixed quarterly compounded nominal interest rate is equivalent to the variable rate his investment earned? Solution: Step 1: Given information: Year 1: I/Y=4\%; C/Y=2 Year 2: I/Y=4.1%; C/Y=2 Year 3: I/Y=4.35%; C/Y=2 Year 4: I/Y=4.75%; C/Y=2 Year 5: I/Y=5.5%; C/Y=2 Step 2: Calculate $n$ and $i$ for all years: $n = \text{(Number of Years)} \times C/Y=1 \times 2=2$ Year 1: $i = \frac{I/Y}{C/Y}=\frac{4\%}{2}= 2\%$ Year 2: $i = \frac{I/Y}{C/Y}=\frac{4.1\%}{2}= 2.05\%$ Year 3: $i =\frac{I/Y}{C/Y}=\frac{4.35\%}{2}= 2.175\%$ Year 4: $i = \frac{I/Y}{C/Y}=\frac{4.75\%}{2}= 2.375\%$ Year 5: $i = \frac{I/Y}{C/Y}=\frac{5.5\%}{2}= 2.75\%$ Step 3: Solve for $PV$. Year 5: \begin{align}PV=\frac{\30,320.12}{(1+0.0275)^2} = \28,\!718.86385\end{align} Year 4: \begin{align}PV =\frac{\28,718.86385}{(1+0.02375)^2} = \27,\!401.82101\end{align} Year 3: \begin{align}PV = \frac{\27,401.82101}{(1+0.02175)^2} = \26,\!247.63224\end{align} Year 2: \begin{align}PV = \frac{\26,247.63224}{(1+0.0205)^2} = \25,\!203.68913\end{align} Year 1: \begin{align}PV = \frac{\25,203.68913}{(1+0.02)^2} = \24,\!225\end{align} Step 4: Solve for $n$. $n = \text{(Number of Years)} \times C/Y= 5\times 4=20$ Step 5: Use the formula for $FV$ and rearrange for $i$. \begin{align} FV &= PV(1 + i)^n\\ \30,\!320.12& = \24,\!225(1+i)^{20}\\ 1.251604 &= (1+i)^{20}\\ 1.251604^{\frac{1}{20}}&= 1+i\\ 1.011284 &= 1+i\\ i &= 0.011284 \end{align} Step 6: Find the nominal rate, $I/Y$. \begin{align} I/Y&=i \times C/Y\\ &=0.011284 \times 4\\ &= 0.045138\\ &=4.51\%\; \text{compounded quarterly} \end{align}24,225 investment earned 4.51% compounded quarterly.

Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.5 Question 3
Calculation N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y
Year 5 2 5.5 ? 0 30,320.12 2 2
Year 4 2 4.75 ? 0 ±PV from above 2 2
Year 3 2 4.35 ? 0 ±PV from above 2 2
Year 2 2 4.1 ? 0 ±PV from above 2 2
Year 1 2 4 ? 0 ±PV from above 2 2
Nominal rate 20 ? −24,225 0 30,320.12 4 4

## 9.6: Equivalent and Effective Interest Rates

1. The HBC credit card has a nominal interest rate of 26.44669% compounded monthly. What effective rate is being charged?

Solution:

Step 1: Given information:
$I/Y = 26.44669\%$; $C/Y_{\text{Old}} = 12$; $C/Y_{\text{New}} = 1$

Step 2:

\begin{align} i_{\text{Old}} &= \frac{I/Y}{C/Y_{\text{Old}}}\\ &= \frac{26.44669\%}{12}\\ &= 2.203890\% \end{align}

Step 3:

\begin{align} i_{\text{New}}&=(1+i_{\text{Old}})^{\frac{C/Y_{\text{Old}}}{C/Y _{\text{New}}}}-1\\ &=(1+0.02203890)^{\frac{12}{1}}-1\\ &=(1.02203890)^{12}-1\\ &=1.299-1\\ &=0.299 \end{align}

29.9% effectively

Calculator Instructions (using ICONV) for Solution 9.6 Question 1
NOM C/Y EFF
26.44669 12 ?
1. Louisa is shopping around for a loan. TD Canada Trust has offered her 8.3% compounded monthly, Conexus Credit Union has offered 8.34% compounded quarterly, and ING Direct has offered 8.45% compounded semi-annually. Rank the three offers and show calculations to support your answer.

Solution:

Convert all to effective rates to facilitate a fair comparison.

Step 1: Given information:

$I/Y = 8.3\%$; $C/Y_{\text{Old}} = 12$; $C/Y_{\text{New}} = 1$

Step 2:

\begin{align} i_{\text{Old}} &= \frac{I/Y}{C/Y_{\text{Old}}}\\ &= \frac{8.3\%}{12}\\ &= 0.691\overline{6}\% \end{align}

Step 3:

\begin{align} i_{\text{New}}&=(1+i_{\text{Old}})^{\frac{C/Y_{\text{Old}}}{C/Y _{\text{New}}}}-1\\ &=(1+0.00691\overline{6})^{\frac{12}{1}}-1\\ &=(1.00691\overline{6})^{12}-1\\ &=1.086231-1\\ &=0.086231 \end{align}

8.6231% effectively

CONEXUS Credit Union:

Step 1: Given information:

$I/Y = 8.34\%$; $C/Y_{\text{Old}} = 4$; $C/Y_{\text{New}} = 1$

Step 2:

\begin{align} i_{\text{Old}} &= \frac{I/Y}{C/Y_{\text{Old}}}\\ & = \frac{8.34\%}{4}\\ &= 2.085\% \end{align}

Step 3:

\begin{align} i_{\text{New}}&=(1+i_{\text{Old}})^{\frac{C/Y_{\text{Old}}}{C/Y _{\text{New}}}}-1\\ &=(1+0.02085)^{\frac{4}{1}}-1\\ &=(1.02085)^{4}-1\\ &=1.086044-1\\ &=0.086045 \end{align}

8.6045% effectively

ING Direct:

Step 1: Given information:

$I/Y = 8.45\%$; $C/Y_{\text{Old}} = 2$; $C/Y_{\text{New}} = 1$

Step 2:

\begin{align} i_{\text{Old}} &= \frac{I/Y}{C/Y_{\text{Old}}}\\ &= \frac{8.45\%}{2}\\ &=4.225\% \end{align}

Step 3:

\begin{align} i_{\text{New}}&=(1+i_{\text{Old}})^{\frac{C/Y_{\text{Old}}}{C/Y _{\text{New}}}}-1\\ &=(1+0.04225)^{\frac{2}{1}}-1 \\ &=(1.04225)^{2}-1\\ &=1.086285-1\\ &=0.086285 \end{align}

8.6285% effectively

Ranking:

Rankings of Companies Based on Effective Rate for Solution 9.6 Question 2
Rank Company Effective Rate
1 ING Direct 8.6285%
3 CONEXUS Credit Union 8.6045%

Calculator Instructions (using ICONV) for Solution 9.6 Question 2
Company NOM C/Y EFF
TD 8.3 12 ?
CONEXUS 8.34 4 ?
ING 8.45 2 ?
1. The TD Emerald Visa card wants to increase its effective rate by 1%. If its current interest rate is 19.067014% compounded daily, what new daily compounded rate should it advertise?

Solution:

First calculate the effective rate.

Step 1: Given information:

$I/Y=19.067014\%$; $C/Y_{\text{Old}} = 365$; $C/Y_{\text{New}} = 1$

Step 2:

\begin{align} i_{\text{Old}} &= \frac{I/Y}{C/Y_{\text{Old}}}\\ &= \frac{19.067014\%}{365}\\ &=0.052238\% \end{align}

Step 3:

\begin{align} i_{\text{New}}&=(1+i_{\text{Old}})^{\frac{C/Y_{\text{Old}}}{C/Y _{\text{New}}}}-1\\ &=(1+0.00052238)^{\frac{365}{1}}-1\\ &=(1.00052238)^{365}-1\\ &=1.209999-1\\ &=0.21 \end{align}

21 % effectively

Now convert it back to a daily rate after making the adjustment (reverse steps 2 & 3):

Step 1:

$i_{\text{New}}=21\%+1\%=22\%$; $C/Y_{\text{Old}} = 365$; $C/Y_{\text{New}} = 1$

Step 3:

\begin{align} i_{\text{New}}&=(1+i_{\text{Old}})^{\frac{C/Y_{\text{Old}}}{C/Y _{\text{New}}}}-1\\ 0.22&=(1+i_{\text{Old}})^{\frac{365}{1}}-1\\ 1.22&=(1+i_{\text{Old}})^{365}\\ 1.22^{\frac{1}{365}}&=1+i_{\text{Old}}\\ 1.000544&=1+i_{\text{Old}}\\ i_{\text{Old}}&=0.000544 \end{align}

Step 2:

\begin{align} i_{\text{Old}} &= \frac{I/Y}{C/Y_{\text{Old}}}\\ 0.000544&= \frac{I/Y}{365}\\ I/Y&=0.198905 \end{align}

19.89% compounded daily

## 9.7: Determining the Number of Compounds

1. You just took over another financial adviser’s account. The client invested $15,500 at 6.92% compounded monthly and now has$24,980.58. How long (in years and months) has this client had the money invested?

Solution:

Step 1: Given information:

$PV=\15,\!500$; $I/Y=6.92\%$; $FV=\24,\!980.58$

Step 2: Calculate $i$.

$i=\frac{I/Y}{C/Y}=\frac{6.92\%}{1}=0.57\overline{6}\%$

Step 3: Use the formula for $FV$, rearrange and solve for $n$.

\begin{align} FV &= PV(1+i)^n\\ \24,\!980.58 &= \15,\!500(1+0.0057\overline{6})^n\\ 1.611650 &= (1.0057\overline{6})^n\\ \ln(1.611650) &= n \times \ln(1.0057\overline{6})\\ 0.477258 &= n \times 0.005750\\ n &= 83 \;\text{monthly compounds} \end{align}

\begin{align} \text{Years} & = \frac{83}{12}= 6.91\overline{6} \;\text{which is}\; 6 \;\text{years plus}\;0.91\overline{6} \times 12 = 11\; \text{months} \end{align}

6 years, 11 months

Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.7 Question 1
N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y
? 6.92 15,500 0 24,980.58 12 12
1. Your organization has a debt of $30,000 due in 13 months and$40,000 due in 27 months. If a single payment of $67,993.20 was made instead using an interest rate of 5.95% compounded monthly, when was the payment made? Use today as the focal date. Solution: Step 1: First figure out what the money is worth today. Original Agreement: Payment #1 =$30,000 due in 13 months
Payment #2 = $40,000 due in 27 months $I/Y = 5.95\%$; $C/Y = 12$ Proposed Agreement:$67,993.20 due in x months

Step 2:  Focal date = today

Step 3: Calculate $i$.

$i=\frac{I/Y}{C/Y}=\frac{5.95\%}{12}=0.4958\overline{3}\%$

Step 4: Calculate $n$ of the payments.

Payment #1:

\begin{align} n &= (\text{Number of Years}) \times (\text{Compounds Per Year})\\ &= 1\frac{1}{12} \times 12\\ &= 1.08\overline{3} \times 12\\ &=13 \end{align}

Payment #2:

\begin{align} n &= (\text{Number of Years}) \times (\text{Compounds Per Year})\\ &= 2\frac{3}{12} \times 12\\ &=2.25 \times 12\\ &= 27 \end{align}

Step 5: Calculate $PV$ of the payments.

Payment #1:

$PV = \frac{\30,\!000}{(1.004958)^{13}} = \28,\!131.73574$

Payment #2:

$PV = \frac{\40,\!000}{(1.004958)^{27}} = \34,\!999.55193$

Step 6: Find the total $PV$ of the payments.

$\text{Total today} = \28,\!131.73574 + \34,\!999.55193 = \63,\!131.28768$

Now figure out where the payment occurs:

Step 1:

$PV=\63,\!131.28768$; $FV = \67,\!993.20$; $I/Y=5.95\%$; $C/Y=12$

Step 2: Find $i$.

$i=\frac{I/Y}{C/Y}=\frac{5.95\%}{12}= 0.4958\overline{3}\%$

Step 3: Use the formula for $FV$, rearrange and solve for $n$.

\begin{align} FV &= PV(1+i)^n\\ \67,\!993.20 &= \63,\!131.28768(1+0.004958)^n\\ 1.121112 &= (1.004958)^n\\ \ln(1.077012) &= n \times \ln(1.004958)\\ 0.074191 &= n \times 0.004946\\ n &= 15 \;\text{monthly compounds} \end{align}

Step 4: Convert the time to years and months.

\begin{align} \text{Number of years} &= \frac{15}{12}\\ &= 1.25\; \text{which is}\; 1\; \text{year plus}\; 0.25 \times 12 = 3\; \text{months} \end{align}

Payment is made 15 months from today.

Calculator Instructions for Solution 9.7 Question 2
Calculation N I/Y PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y
Payment 1 13 5.95 ? 0 30,000 12 12
Payment 2 27 5.95 ? 0 40,000 12 12
Timing of Payment ? 5.95 6,3131.28768 0 67,993.2 12 12
1. A $9,500 loan requires a payment of$5,000 after 1½ years and a final payment of 6,000. If the interest rate on the loan is 6.25% compounded monthly, when should the final payment be made? Use today as the focal date. Express your answer in years and months. Solution: Step 1: Given information: $P=\9,\!500$; $I/Y = 6.25\%$; $C/Y = 12$ $\text{Payment #}1 = \5,\!000\; \text{due in}\; 1½\; \text{years}$ $\text{Payment #}2 = \6,\!000 \;\text{due in x years}$ Step 2: Focal date = today Step 3: Find $i$. $i=\frac{I/Y}{C/Y}=\frac{6.25\%}{12}= 0.5208\overline{3}\%$ Step 4: Calculate $n$ for the first payment. Payment #1: \begin{align}n&=(\text{Number of Years}) \times (\text{Compounds Per Year})\\ &= 1\frac{1}{2} \times 12\\ &=1.5 \times 12\\ &= 18 \end{align} Payment #2: $n = ?$ Step 5: Calculate $PV$ of the payments. Payment #1: \begin{align} \5,\!000 &= PV(1+0.005208\overline{3})^{18}\\ PV&=\frac{5,000}{(1.005208\overline{3})^{18}}\\ &= \4,\!553.65956 \end{align} Payment #2: \begin{align} \6,\!000 &= PV(1+0.005208\overline{3})^n\\ PV&=\frac{\6,000}{(1.005208\overline{3})^n} \end{align} Step 6: Solve for $n$ of the final payment. \begin{align} \9,\!500&=\4,\!553.65956+\frac{\6,\!000}{(1.005208\overline{3})^n}\\ \4,\!946.34044&=\frac{\6,\!000}{(1.005208\overline{3})^n}\\ (1.005208\overline{3})^n&=\frac{\6,\!000}{\4,\!946.34044}\\ (1.005208\overline{3})^n&= 1.213018\\ n \times \ln(1.005208) &= \ln(1.213018)\\ n \times 0.005194 &= 0.193111\\ n &= 37.173874\; \text{monthly compounds (round up to}\;38 \; \text{months}) \end{align} Step 7: Convert the time to years and months. \begin{align} \text{Number of years} &=\frac{38}{12}\\ &= 3.1\overline{6}\;\text{which is}\;3\;\text{years plus}\;0.1\overline{6} \times 12 = 2 \;\text{months} \end{align} 3 years, 2 months ## Image Descriptions Figure 9.2.3: This timeline indicates9300 at 4.25 years ago. The interest rate of 6.35% compounded semi-annually goes from 4.25 years ago to 1.75 years ago, giving i = 0.03175. The interest rate of 6.5% compounded quarterly goes from 1.75 years ago to today, giving i = 0.01625. $9300 moves from 4.25 years ago to 1.75 years ago as FV1, with n = 2.5 × 2 = 5. FV1 at 1.75 years ago moves to today as FV2 with n = 1.75 × 4 = 7. [Back to Figure 9.2.3] Figure 9.3.2: This timeline indicates$45,839.05 at 8.5 years. The interest rate of 4.5% compounded semi-annually goes from Loan date to 4.5 years, giving i =4.5%/2 = 0.0225. The interest rate of 3.25% compounded annually goes from 4.5 years to 8.5 years, giving i = 3.25%/1= 0.0325. $9300 moves from 8.5 years to 4.55 years as PV1, with n = 4 × 1 = 4. FV1 at 4.5 years moves to loan date as FV2 with n = 4.5 × 2 = 9. [Back to Figure 9.3.2] Figure 9.4.1: This timeline shows$250,000 at today, $300,000 at 1 year,$300,000 at 2 years, $300,000 at 3 years. The$300,000 at 1 year moves back to today as PV1, with n = 1 x 1 = 1. The $300,000 at 2 years moves back to today as PV2, with n = 2 x 1 = 2. The$300,000 at 3 years moves back to today as PV3, with n = 3 x 1 = 3. [Back to Figure 9.4.1]

Figure 9.4.2: This is a timeline with debts above the line and payments below the line. The debt of $1600 at 18 months ago is brought to 2 years as FV1 with n = 3.5 x 4 = 14. The debt of$2300 at 9 months ago is brought to 2 years as FV2 with n = 2.75 x 4 = 11. The debt of $5100 at 3 months ago is brought to 2 years as FV3 with n = 2.25 x 4 = 9. The payment of$1000 at today is brought to 2 years as FV4 with n = 2 x 4 = 8. The payment of $4000 at 9 months is brought to 2 years as FV5 with n = 1.25 x 4 = 5. There is a payment of x at 2 years. [Back to Figure 9.4.2] Figure 9.4.3: This is a timeline with debts above the line and payments below the line. The debt of$7,429.74 at 12 months is brought to 15 months as FV1 with n = (3/12) x 12 = 3. The debt of \$3,176.22 at 24 months is brought to 15 months as PV1 with n = (9/12) x 12 = 9. The payment of x at 30 months is brought to 15 months as PV2 with n = (15/12) x 12= 15. There is a payment of 2x at 15 months. [Back to Figure 9.4.3] 