Chapter 6: Syntax
Until now we’ve only talked about Yes-No questions—questions that can be answered by saying “yes” or “no” in a language like English.
|(1)||Is it snowing?||(Main clause Yes-No Question)|
|(2)||They asked if it’s snowing.||(Embedded Yes-No Question)|
Not all languages have words corresponding to “yes” and “no”! In many languages, the way you answer a Yes/No–question is by repeating the verb with or without negation. For example to answer Is it raining? you could say Is. or Isn’t. This is the case in Mandarin, for example, as well as in Irish.
Yes-No questions like these just ask whether something is or is not the case. But we can ask more complex questions, asking for specific information about part of a sentence. For example:
|(3)||When was it snowing?.||(asking about time)|
|(4)||Where is it snowing?||(asking about location)|
These are content questions; in English they are often called WH-questions because they involve question words that start with the letters “wh” (who, what, where, when, why, which… and how, which doesn’t start with “wh” but does contain both those letters). These words are traditionally labelled interrogative pronouns; in this chapter we will simply call them content question words. In linguistics the label “WH-questions” is often generalized to other languages, but in this textbook we will stick to “content questions” since the relevant words don’t start with “WH” in other languages.
In many languages content question words do tend to start with some of the same sounds. For example, in French many (though not all) of these words begin with “qu-” (pronounced [kw]):
- qui (who)
- quoi (what)
- quand (when)
- quelle (which)
And in Anishinaabemowin many content question words start with [a] or [aa], though in some varieties the short vowel [a] is no longer pronounced in these words.
- awenen (who)
- awegonen (what)
- aanapii (when)
- aaniin (how, why, in what way)
- aandi (where)
Whether or not a language has a group of question words that start with the same sound, all languages have ways of asking content questions, just like all languages have ways of asking Yes-No questions.
Unlike Yes-No questions, the answer to a content question would be a word or phrase corresponding to the question word that was used. If someone asks:
|(5)||Who were you talking to?|
It wouldn’t make any sense to answer with yes or no. Instead the answer would be a noun phrase like “my friend” or “the person over there” or “U’ilani”, or with a full sentence (“I was talking to my friend / the person over there / U’ilani.”)
Just like Yes-No questions, content questions in English involve a change in word order from what we find in corresponding statements.
Consider the following very short dialogue:
|(6)||A:||That squirrel has hidden something.|
|B:||What has the squirrel hidden?|
By asking the question with what, Person B is asking for more information about the something Person A mentioned. But even though this question is about the object of the verb hide, the question word what appears at the very beginning of the clause.
We find the same thing with all content questions in English: no matter where the phrase we’re asking about would show up in a statement, the question word has to go at the beginning of the sentence:
|(7)||Where is it snowing?|
|a.||It’s snowing in Ottawa.|
|b.||*It’s snowing where?|
|(8)||When was it snowing?|
|a.||It was snowing yesterday.|
|b.||*It was snowing when?|
|(9)||How do squirrels hide nuts.|
|a.||Squirrels hide nuts by burying them.|
|b.||*Squirrels hide nuts how?|
All the grammatical main clause content questions we’ve seen here also involve Subject-Aux Inversion, just like Yes-No questions do. We can see this because the is before the subject in all the grammatical content questions.
But Subject-Aux inversion isn’t the only change in word order, we also need to state a generalization about the position of the question word itself. We will formalize the generalization in Section 6.19 in the context of movement within syntactic tree structures, but for now we can state the following generalization.
- Question Word Fronting
- A content question word (e.g. who, what, where, when, why, how), or a phrase headed by a content question word, must appear at the beginning of the clause.
Variation across languages: Questions
Depending on what other languages you know, you may already have been thinking about the fact that not all languages have Subject-Aux Inversion in questions. There are a variety of question-marking strategies in different languages, and in this section we review some of the most common ones.
Many languages use a fixed question word to mark Yes-No questions, sometimes called a question particle. For example, one of the more common ways to form a Yes-No question in French is to add est-ce que to the beginning of the sentence:
|“We have found the ghosts.”|
|“Have y’all found the ghosts?”|
The particle est-ce que looks like multiple words, and historically it indeed derives from a phrase meaning something like “is it that”, but in contemporary French it acts like a single word, which we could hypothetically think of being spelled “eska”.
French has another way of forming questions that does involve Subject-Aux Inversion. Alongside the examples above, you can also say:
|“Have y’all found the ghosts?”|
This way of forming questions is someone old-fashioned for many current speakers of French, especially when speaking instead of writing. The more common strategy today is to use a question particle like est-ce que—or to just use question intonation.
We can treat est-ce que as a [+Q] complementizer that occurs in main clauses—exactly as though we marked questions in English by just adding whether or if to the beginning of the sentence.
Japanese also forms questions by adding a question particle, but because Japanese is head-final, the particle appears at the end of the sentence:
|“The student found the ghost.”|
|“Did the student find the ghost?”|
Similarly, Mandarin forms questions with the particle ma (Mandarin examples from Liing 2014).
|“It’s raining outside.”|
|“Is it raining outside?”|
The analysis of Mandarin is a little bit more complicated, though. First of all, the particle appears at the end of the sentence in Mandarin, like in Japanese, even though Mandarin is otherwise head-initial, like English and French. Second, there are several other ways to ask questions in Mandarin, which are equally (if not more) common than adding the particle ma.
Overall, it is very common for languages to form questions by adding a particle to the beginning or end of a sentence—but it is also very common to form questions via head movement of the type we see in English.
Just as not all languages have Subject-Aux Inversion in questions, not all languages exhibit Question Word Fronting. These languages always leave content question words in-situ.
Japanese, for example, is a language with in-situ content questions. Question words like nani (“what”) are pronounced in the same place as the corresponding non-question arguments are.
|“What do rabbits eat?”|
|“Rabbits eat vegetables.”|
The key point to notice in these generalizations is that the word order in (17) and (18) is the same, even though (17) is a content question and (18) is the corresponding statement. Both have a different word order than the English translation, partly because Japanese is head-final (so the verb comes at the end) and partly because the word nani-o stays in-situ.
The question particle ka also appears in this WH-question, just like it does in Yes-No questions in Japanese, as we saw above.
Liing, Woan-Jen. 2014. How to ask questions in Mandarin Chinese. Doctoral Dissertation, CUNY.