Intercultural Business Communication was created in 2021 by a team of faculty and library staff at Confederation College to meet the needs of international and domestic students in our post-diploma programs.

This book was composed on the lands of Fort William First Nation, ancestral territory of the Anishnaawbe people who are signatory to the Robinson-Superior Treaty of 1850. We are grateful to the Anishnaawbe people of Northwestern Ontario.

Portions of chapters were  adopted, adapted and/or remixed from other published works under the fair dealing guidelines:

Open Education Resources were also copied in whole or in part under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license:

Accreditation can be found as a citation in the learning objectives for each chapter and as footnotes attached to headings preceding used material. In most cases, information within a footnoted heading is verbatim from the source; any changes were minor: word choice revisions to omit slang or references that might be unknown to our students or omission for brevity of explanatory sentences or examples. In chapters where information is presented without accreditation, the material was created by faculty of Confederation College.

Most definitions for glossary terms were adapted from definitions provided by Microsoft Word’s “Smart Lookup” tool.



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Intercultural Business Communication by Confederation College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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