a term that describes an obscure or inexact meaning


a short amusing or instructive story about a real incident or person


when two or more events do not happen at the same time (e.g. the recording of the presentation and the viewing of the presentation)


Provide an in-text citation (with author and date information) along with a reference entry (containing complete retrieval information) to tell the reader the original source of the information used.

Cross-cultural competence

the ability to communicate effectively with people from different cultural groups based on cultural knowledge, understanding, skill, and attitude


An ellipsis is three dots: ... When used in academic writing, these dots signify that something has been removed from a direct quote.


the ability to understand and share the feelings of another.


evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture.




special vocabulary for a group, trade, profession, or sphere of activity; words that only people in a certain profession understand


A printed heading on a company stationary, containing the company's name, address, telephone number, and, if applicable, website, fax, number, and logo.


relating to or constituting several cultural or ethnic groups within a society


In grammar, parallelism, also known as parallel structure or parallel construction, is a balance within one or more sentences of similar phrases or clauses that have the same grammatical structure. The application of parallelism affects readability and may make texts easier to process.


Taking information from a source and rewriting it in your own words, especially to achieve greater clarity and cohesion in written work. Not to be confused with patchwriting or direct quoting. Paraphrases must accurately convey the original author's meaning but must different words and different sentence structures.


also known as round brackets: ( )


relating to a voice of verbs in which the subject undergoes the action of the verb (e.g., they were killed as opposed to he killed them).The opposite of active.


This is a type of plagiarism that results when someone has tried to paraphrase some information from a source but has not really put the information into their own words. A common example is when a person has just changed a few words from the original; just using a few synonyms is not paraphrasing - it is patchwriting. Patchwriting is not permissible in college writing.

Phrasal verbs

a verb that combines with one or more prepositions to deliver its meaning


the practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own.


preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience


words that replace or refer to nouns (eg he/she/it/they)


Using the exact words from a source. Quoted material must be placed in "quotation marks" to show that it is a direct quote and not a paraphrase. Direct quotes (and paraphrases) need to be cited to avoid plagiarism.


a question asked in order to create a dramatic effect or to make a point rather than to get an answer.


A source is a source of information. Secondary sources, which is mainly what you will use for college assignments like research papers and essays, can be websites, podcasts, videos, newspaper articles, journal articles, textbooks - even lectures.


a writer's position, or opinion, on their topic


a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.


Supporting points are the main reasons that explain your point of view on a topic. In a research paper, support should be facts and opinion of experts that you have located from reliable sources. In reflective writing, support might include your personal experiences.


a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language, for example shut is a synonym of close


the ability or willingness to tolerate something, in particular the existence of opinions or behavior that one does not necessarily agree with


Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from the sex that they were assigned at birth. Some transgender people who desire medical assistance to transition from one sex to another identify as transsexual. Transgender, often shortened as trans, is also an umbrella term; in addition to including people whose gender identity is the opposite of their assigned sex, it may also include people who are non-binary or genderqueer. Other definitions of transgender also include people who belong to a third gender, or else conceptualize transgender people as a third gender.


a formally concluded and ratified agreement between nations.


a term that describes a verb's ability to show whether the subject of a sentence acts or is acted upon


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