- There are a number of pandemics that have occurred throughout history. Some of the most devastating ones include the Black Death, Spanish Flu, and HIV/AIDS.
- Negative human responses are common across pandemics including: resistance to public health measures (e.g., anti-masking, anti-vaccination, anti-isolation); stereotyping and scapegoating; and misinformation campaigns.
- Pandemics have an array of social costs and implications, which include impacts on: vulnerable populations, social customs and practices (i.e., travel bans, funerals, dealing with bodies), and grief and depression felt throughout society.
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