2.8 References & Media Attributions


Alberta Health Service (AHS). (March 7, 2016). Video 3: History and cultural diversity [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9mZdxRfYzI&list=PLi1tOF1I5ZoUvse4nEljWZCVGIzk8U8S-&index=15

Anderson, M. & Woticky, G. (December 19, 2018). The end of life is an auspicious opportunity for healing: Decolonizing death and dying for urban Indigenous people. International Journal of Indigenous Studies, 13(2),48-60. https://doi.org/10.32799/ijih.v13i2.32062

Aries, P. (1974). Western attitudes toward death: from the middle ages to the present. The Johns Hopkins University Press. https://books.google.ca/books?printsec=frontcover&vid=LCCN73019340&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

Arnup, K. (2013). Family Perspectives: Death and dying in Canada. The Vanier Institute of the Family. https://bit.ly/3d83hZB

Barkin, R. & Gentles, I. (1990). Death in Victorian Toronto, 1850-1899. Urban History Review / Revue d’histoire urbaine, 19(1), 14–29. https://doi.org/10.7202/1017575ar

Barkwell, L. (n.d.). Metis culture: Metis death rituals and ceremonies. https://www.metismuseum.ca/media/document.php/11728.Metis Death Ceremonies.pdf

Büster, L. & Dayes, J. (August 11, 2017). What we can learn from death rites of the past will help us treat the dead and grieving better today. TheConversation.com. https://theconversation.com/what-we-can-learn-from-death-rites-of-the-past-will-help-us-treat-the-dead-and-grieving-better-today-74718

Canada. (March 2022a). Indian Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. I-5). Justice Laws Website.

Canada. (March 2022b). The Constitution Acts, 1867 to 1982. Justice Laws Website. https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/const/

Cancer Care Ontario. (n.d.). Teachings to support grief and loss in First Nations, Inuit and Métis communities. https://www.cancercareontario.ca/sites/ccocancercare/files/assets/ACCUGriefAndLoss.pdf 

Cartwright, M. (March 10, 2021). Death, burial & the afterlife in the ancient Celtic religion. World History Encyclopedia. https://www.worldhistory.org/article/1707/death-burial–the-afterlife-in-the-ancient-celtic/

Carver, M. (1986). Anglo-Saxon objectives at Sutton Hoo, 1985. Anglo-Saxon England, 15. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44510811

Chavez, S. (August 22, 2019). The story of death Is the story of women. Yes!.. https://www.yesmagazine.org/issue/death/2019/08/22/dying-feminist-funeral-women-caitlin-doughty

Currie, C. (February 5, 2017). Carole Currie: On the dining table? Old funeral customs. Citizen Times. https://www.citizen-times.com/story/life/2017/02/05/carole-currie-dining-table-old-funeral-customs/97301204/

Davidson, H. (December 1950). The hill of the dragon: Anglo-Saxon burial mounds in literature and archaeology. Folklore, 61(4), 169-185. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1256884

DenHoed, A. (February 3, 2016). Our strange, unsettled history of mourning. New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/our-strange-unsettled-history-of-mourning

Dilger, M. & Hizon, R. (April 6, 2018). The Filipino tribe that hangs its dead from cliffs. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/travel/article/20180405-the-filipino-tribe-that-hangs-its-dead-from-cliffs

Dugdale, L. (February 8, 2012). The art of dying well. Hastings Center Report, 40(6), 22-23. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1552-146X.2010.tb00073.x

Duggleby, W., Kuchera, S., MacLeod, R., Holyoke, P., Scott, T., Holtslander, L., Letendre, A., Moeke-Maxwell, T., Burhansstipanov, L. & Chambers, T. (June 15, 2015). Indigenous people’s experiences at the end of life. Palliative and Supportive Care. 13(6), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1017/S147895151500070X

Evemy, B. (May 28, 2020). Famous paintings that reflect our mortality back at us. Mutual Art.  https://www.mutualart.com/Article/Famous-Paintings-That-Reflect-Our-Mortal/B486FBFF51753750

Hampton, M., Baydala, A., Bourassa, C., McKay-McNabb, K., Placsko, C., Goodwill, K., McKenna, B., McNabb, P. & Boekelder, R. (December 19. 2018). An Indigenous issue: Why now? Journal of Palliative Care., 26(1). https://doi.org/10.1177/082585971002600102

Hunter Crouse. (December 8, 2020). Indigenous religions of Canada [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LV4h9vLJLhI

Ian Anderson Continuing Education Program in End-of-Life Care. (n.d.). Indigenous perspectives on death and dying. https://www.cpd.utoronto.ca/endoflife/Slides/PPT%20Indigenous%20Perspectives.pdf

Indigenous Foundations (2009). Oral traditions. University of British Columbia. https://indigenousfoundations.arts.ubc.ca/oral_traditions/

International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA). (2021). Indigenous peoples in Canada. https://www.iwgia.org/en/canada.html

Jacobsen, M. (March 29, 2016). ‘Spectacular death: Proposing a new fifth phase to Phillppe Ariès’s admirable history of death. Humanities, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/h5020019

Juarez, A. (December 20, 2018). Status, style, and culture: Interpretation of the 1870s parlor and the 1931 living room. Rancho Los Cerritos Historical Site. https://www.rancholoscerritos.org/status-style-culture-interpretation-1870s-parlor-1931-living-room/

Kinch, A. (October 29, 2017). How the dead danced with the living in medieval society. TheConversation.com. https://theconversation.com/how-the-dead-danced-with-the-living-in-medieval-society-85881

Kinsella, S., Kwan-Lafond, D., Mutamba, M., Thornhill, N. & Winterstein, S. (n.d.). Chapter 24: Christianity and First peoples (pp. 247-253). In Our Stories: First Peoples in Canada. Centennial College, ON. https://ecampusontario.pressbooks.pub/indigstudies/

Longboat, D. (2002). Module 10: Indigenous perspectives on death & dying. Ian Anderson Continuing Education Program in End-of-Life Care. https://www.cpd.utoronto.ca/endoflife/Modules/Indigenous%20Perspectives%20on%20Death%20and%20Dying.pdf

Lundgren, B. & Houseman, C. (2010). Banishing death: The disappearance of the appreciation of mortality. Omega : Journal of Death and Dying, 61(3), 223–249. https://doi.org/10.2190/OM.61.3.d

McRae, M. (November 2, 2018). The creepy and fascinating history of how humans get rid of their dead. Science Alert. https://www.sciencealert.com/keith-eggener-ted-talk-on-history-of-the-cemetary

Mikles, N. (May 4, 2021). Indians are forced to change rituals for the dead as COVID)-19 rages through cities and villages. TheConversation.com. https://theconversation.com/indians-are-forced-to-change-rituals-for-their-dead-as-covid-19-rages-through-cities-and-villages-160076

Mourning After: The Victorian celebration of death. (n.d.). Oshawa Community Museum. http://www.oshawamuseum.org/pdf/Mourning_After_The_Victorian_Celebration_of_Death.pdf

Murray, K. (April 16, 2015). Reflecting on death: First Nations people. Life & Death Matters. https://lifeanddeathmatters.ca/reflecting-on-death-first-nations-people/

Muzyka, K. (January 31, 2020). Colonization has shaped how Indigenous communities grieve. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/radio/unreserved/death-and-dying-how-indigenous-communities-grieve-survive-and-thrive-1.5441767/colonization-has-shaped-how-indigenous-communities-grieve-1.5443932

National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation (NCTR). (n.d.). Reports. https://nctr.ca/records/reports/

Nixon, K. (October 2, 2019). Why I wore black after he died: Lessons from Victorian mourning culture. Yes Magazine. https://www.yesmagazine.org/issue/death/opinion/2019/10/02/grief-dying-mourning-victorian-culture

O’Connell, M. (May 7, 2014). ‘Corporatization’ of funeral industry drives quest for alternatives. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/corporatization-of-funeral-industry-drives-quest-for-alternatives-1.2626007

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (January 21, 2020). Linking Indigenous communities with regional development in Canada. OECD Rural Policy Reviewshttps://doi.org/10.1787/fa0f60c6-en

Powell, J. (March 8, 2019). The history of death and burial customs. ThoughtCo.com. https://www.thoughtco.com/death-and-burial-customs-1421757

Queens University. (n.d.). Terminology guide. https://www.queensu.ca/indigenous/ways-knowing/terminology-guide 

Reagan, R. (May 28, 2020). Dancing with death: A short history of funeral feasts & merry wakes. Blackthorn&Stone.com. https://blackthornandstone.com/2020/05/28/dancing-with-death-a-short-history-of-funeral-feasts-merry-wakes/

Rodgers, G. (January 18, 2017). 13 strange superstitions about death. Huffington Post. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/thirteen-strange-supersti_b_8997856

Roser, M., Ortiz-Ospina, E. & Ritchie, H. (2013). Life expectancy. Our World In Data. https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy

San Filippo, D. (January 2006). Historical perspective on attitudes concerning death and dying. Faculty Publications, 29. https://digitalcommons.nl.edu/faculty_publications/29/

Shaw, G. (March 27, 2015). Stone-age Italians defleshed their dead. Science. https://www.science.org/content/article/stone-age-italians-defleshed-their-dead

Sood, S. (October 25, 2012). Exploring the history of catacombs. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/travel/article/20121025-exploring-the-history-of-catacombs

Stolen lives: The Indigenous peoples of Canada and the Indian Residential Schools. (2015). Facing History & Ourselves. https://www.facinghistory.org/stolen-lives-indigenous-peoples-canada-and-indian-residential-schools

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC). (2015). Honouring the truth, reconciling for the future. The National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. https://ehprnh2mwo3.exactdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Executive_Summary_English_Web.pdf

United Nations. (April 22, 2019). Indigenous people’s traditional knowledge must be preserved, valued globally, speakers stress as permanent forum opens annual session. Economic & Social Council (ECOSOC). https://www.un.org/press/en/2019/hr5431.doc.htm

Walsh, B. (November 1, 2017). When you die, you’ll probably be embalmed. Thank Abraham Lincoln For That. Smithsonian Magazine. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/how-lincolns-embrace-embalming-birthed-american-funeral-industry-180967038/

Whitmore Schanzenbach, D., Nunn, R. & Bauer, L. (June 2016). The changing landscape of American life expectancy. The Hamilton Project. https://www.hamiltonproject.org/assets/files/changing_landscape_american_life_expectancy.pdf

Wojcik, D. & Dobler, R. (November 1, 2017). What ancient cultures teach us about grief mourning and continuity of life.TheConversation.com. https://theconversation.com/what-ancient-cultures-teach-us-about-grief-mourning-and-continuity-of-life-86199

Media Attributions

Alberta Health Service (AHS). (March 7, 2016). Video 3: History and cultural diversity [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9mZdxRfYzI&list=PLi1tOF1I5ZoUvse4nEljWZCVGIzk8U8S-&index=15

Andrewrabbott. (February 10, 2018). Beecham’s Photo-Folio, church cemetery, Nottingham [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Beecham%27s_Photo-Folio,_Church_Cemetery,_Nottingham.jpg

Canadian Virtual Hospice. (n.d.-a). Curtis: The comfort of ceremonies [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/151016926?embedded=true&source=vimeo_logo&owner=10868544

Canadian Virtual Hospice. (n.d.-b). Elaine Lavallee: Moving to the spirit world [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/151016929?embedded=true&source=vimeo_logo&owner=10868544

Canadian Virtual Hospice. (n.d.-c). Jim: Grief and celebration [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/151016925?embedded=true&source=vimeo_logo&owner=10868544

Canadian Virtual Hospice. (n.d.-d). Richard: The value of ceremonies for family members [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/150905087

Co9man (October 16, 2014). Hindu funeral ceremony in 1922 [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hindu_funeral_ceremony_in_1922.jpg

Ellis, S. (1842). Family secrets or hints to those who would make home happy [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Family_secrets;_or,_Hints_to_those_who_would_make_home_happy_(1842)_(14743587256).jpg

Frontline PBS | Official. (February 13, 2015). A very short history of death [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/-aBhT3ItQeI

GiovanniPZ. (June 9, 2018). Interno con particolare [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interno_con_particolare.jpg

Hunter Crouse. (December 8, 2020). Indigenous religions of Canada [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LV4h9vLJLhI

Juliethepearl (April 2, 2016). Close up of hanging coffins in Sagada [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Close_up_of_Hanging_Coffins_in_Sagada.jpg

Morris, W. (November 2019). Medicine wheel [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/185600501@N02/49147424536 

Phillips, H. (May 7, 2007). SHIP MED [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SHIP_MED.jpg

Plunkett, S. (January 29, 2007). Sutton Hoo mound 2 reconstruction [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sutton_Hoo_Mound_2_reconstruction.jpg

Scwordie. (June 23, 2017). Backyard cemetery [Photograph]. Flickr.

Ted-Ed. (October 30, 2018). The fascinating history of cemeteries: Keith Eggener [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/8HegwRtbDSU

Tribal Trade Co. (June 19, 2020). What is the medicine wheel? (Medicine wheel teaching 101) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7nb4rJ_N14

The Real Reaper Files. (October 17, 2019). North American funerals (History of Funerals in the U.S.) [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/uYdNx3hiwJw

Cover Photo: Sniegowski, D. (May 2018). A sick young woman’s time has come [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/sniegowski/43523540924


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On Death and Dying Copyright © 2022 by Jacqueline Lewis is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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