Chapter 12: Digital Media and Communications

82 Conclusion

image of a man with a moustacheReturning to Dhavit’s situation:

  • What tools or ideas could Dhavit suggest to his boss to help promote job opportunities at his organization?
  • What factors should Dhavit consider when designing his message to build engagement?
  • What kind of approaches should Dhavit steer clear of?
  • What might Dhavit do with his own digital footprint, as an established (but not very digital) business professional?

Check Your Understanding

Additional Resources

Social Media Etiquette Rules for Business

The State of Digital Literacy in Canada (2017). The Brookfield Institute report


Analog media – created by encoding information onto a physical object that must then be paired with another device capable of reading that specific code.
Co-creation –  this is the highest level on the matrix, in which users are earning, sharing, advocating, socialising and co-developing.
Co-Destruction – users will create new negative content with the aim of diminishing the reputation, trust or value of a person/brand/platform.
Consumption – this is a passive form on engagement, where users are reading and watching, primarily using social media as a source of information.
Crowdsourcing – refers to the idea stage of development where people from various perspectives and positions offer proposals or information to solve a problem or create something new.
Detachment – detached users have actively disengaged with a social media platform, person or brand. They will “unlike” or adjust settings so they do not see information or content.
Digital media – composed of and/or are designed to read numerical codes (hence the root word digit).
Digital footprint – how you are represented on the internet. May include images and a variety of social media networks if you participate in them.
Dormancy – these users may have previously been engaged online, but may occasionally be described as ‘lurkers’. They make no contributions nor do they engage online.
Negative contribution – users will make negative active comments to try and influence others to change their feelings or opinions about a brand, subject, person or platform.
Positive contribution – users are engaging with content and others, but not necessarily adding content.
Social networking sites (SNSs) – allow users to build a public or semipublic profile, create a network of connections to other people, and view other people’s profiles and networks of connections.
Technological convergence – the digitalization of traditional media that allows them to circulate freely and be read/accessed/played by many digital media platforms without the need for conversion.


Brabham, D. C. (2008). Crowdsourcing as a model for problem solving: An introduction and cases. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 14(1), 76.

Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2008). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 13(1), 211.

Dolan, R., Conduit, J., Fahy, J. & Goodman, S. (2015). Social media engagement behaviour: A uses and gratifications perspective. Journal of Strategic Marketing, DOI: 10.1080/0965254X.2015.1095222.

Kaufman, W. (2008, August 20). Crowd sourcing turns business on Its head. Retrieved from

Maslow, A. H. (1987). Motivation and personality (3rd ed.). Delhi, India: Pearson Education.

Richardson, K., & Hessey, S. (2009). Archiving the self?: Facebook as biography of social and relational memory. Journal of Information, Communication, and Ethics in Society, 7(1), 29.

Siapera, E. (2012). Understanding new media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Statista. (2018). Most popular social networks worldwide as of April 2018, ranked by number of active users (in millions). Retrieved from

Content in this chapter was adapted from Communication in the Real World: An Introduction to Communication Studies by a publisher who has requested that they and the original author not receive attribution. It was originally released and is used under CC BY-NC-SA. The original work and this adaptation unless otherwise expressly stated, are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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