# 8.3 Review Exercises

- Jeremy is thinking of starting up a candle manufacturing business. The initial outlay for equipment, moulds, and other required production equipment is $15,000. Working part time on this hobby business, Jeremy estimates that he will lose $2,000 in the first year, break even in the second year, and earn annual profits of $5,000, $10,000, and $15,000 in subsequent years. After the five years, he hopes to sell the business to an investor for $17,500. If his cost of capital is 8.25% compounded annually, should he pursue this venture? Provide net present value calculations to support your answer.

**Click to see Answer**NPV=$16,241.50; pursue venture

- A company pursues all projects that exceed its 15% cost of capital. Project “Affinity” is available to the company with an initial investment of $655,000. Forecasted annual profits are expected to be $200,000 for the first three years and $160,000 for the subsequent three years. Based on the IRR, should the company pursue Project “Affinity”?

**Click to see Answer**IRR=17.47%; pursue project

- Coca-Cola is considering two new flavours—cherry and vanilla—for expansion of one of its product lines. Based on historical and competitive information, the cherry flavour isn’t quite as popular as the vanilla flavour, but it will endure in the market longer. Both options require an investment of $2.25 million in equipment and modifications. The cherry flavour is expected to have annual profits of $750,000 for the first two years and $500,000 for five more years. The vanilla flavour is expected to initially have annual profits of $950,000 for two years, $650,000 for two years, and $250,000 for the last three years. The cost of capital is 16%. Calculate the NPV for each flavour. Which flavour should Coca-Cola launch?

**Click to see Answer**NVP of Cherry=$170,590.69; NPV of Vanilla=$360,483.17; launch Vanilla

- A saleswoman informs the head librarian that investing in her new automated library product is a steal at $103,000. Before purchasing, the head librarian investigates the benefits of the automated product, which is expected to have a useful life of seven years and a 15% cost of capital. Each year, $24,000 in labour savings and reduced book shrinkage is projected. However, the automated products require regular maintenance of $1,000 in the first four years and $2,000 in the last three years. Electricity bills will also rise by $1,500 each year in the first three years and $2,100 each year in the last four years. Calculate the NPV for this product. Is the saleswoman correct? Should the automated system be purchased?

**Click to see Answer**NPV=-$15,982.73; do not pursue automation

- Hershiser has been researching different methods of management leadership that are designed to increase employee motivation and performance. If he pursues a new leadership style, it will require an investment of $165,000 to take the training. A new executive assistant will be hired at a cost of $55,000 annually with expected raises of 5% each year. The techniques and tactics from the style are expected to have an impact on employees for five years before needing to be refreshed and updated with more modern techniques. Increased motivation and performance will produce net profits of $100,000 in the first year, rising by 10% in each subsequent year.
- Calculate the internal rate of return.
- If the cost of capital is 10%, should Hershiser take the management leadership course?

**Click to see Answer**IRR=22.36%; take course

- Mariners Inc. in Halifax has the option to purchase only one of two available offshore fishing rights. Both rights are available for purchase on a four-year contract before they have to be renewed.
- Fishing right #1 costs $600,000 to acquire, and $64,000 is needed in new equipment to harvest the fish in the area. For each of the first two years, $21,000 will be spent on equipment maintenance and replacement followed by $33,000 in both of the last two years. Annual profits are expected at $300,000.
- Fishing right #2 costs $400,000 to acquire, and $82,000 is needed in new equipment, which requires annual costs of $30,000 for each of the first two years and $41,000 for both of the last two years. Annual profits are expected to be $250,000.

Calculate the net present value for both projects if the cost of capital is 14%. What decision do you recommend?

**Click to see Answer**NPV of #1=$133,721.11; NPV of #2=$145,079.14; choose fishing right #2

- The following projects are available, but only one can be chosen. The cost of capital in all cases is 16%.
- Project A requires an initial investment of $180,000 followed by profits of $30,000 in years one to four, $40,000 in years five to seven, and $50,000 in years eight to ten with a residual value of $100,000 in year ten.
- Project B requires an initial investment of $335,000 followed by profits of $65,000 in years one to three, $85,000 in years four to six, and $110,000 in years seven to eight with a residual value of $60,000 in year ten.
- Project C requires an initial investment of $372,000 followed by profits of $150,000 in years four to nine and a residual value of $70,000 in the tenth year.

- If the cost of capital is 16%, calculate the net present value for each project. Which project should be selected?
- If the cost of capital is 11%, calculate the net present value for each project. What decision should be selected?

**Click to see Answer**a. NPV of A=$15,962.27; NPV of B=$19,359.83; NPV of C=-$2,034; choose Project B b. NPV of A=$71,533.63; NPV of B=$97,566.83; NPV of C=$116,652.84; choose Project C

- The Banff Gondola is looking to increase its operational capacity through modifications to its gondola equipment. If it invests $2.3 million it can upgrade the motors, strengthen the necessary supports, and add an additional cable car to its line. The expected life of the project is eight years before the equipment will need to be replaced. Annual increased maintenance costs are $50,000 at the end of every year for four years and then $100,000 at the end of every year during the last four years. Because of construction and down times, Banff Gondola is forecasting a loss of $415,000 in the first year. Afterwards, it projects that the equipment will result in increased profits of $850,000 per year. Calculate the internal rate of return for the project.

**Click to see Answer**IRR=16.07%

#### Attribution

“Chapter 15 Summary” from Business Math: A Step-by-Step Handbook (2021B) by J. Olivier and Lyryx Learning Inc. through a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License unless otherwise noted.