4.10 References & Media Attributions


Adelstein, J. (March 18, 2019). Rising to heaven: Japan’s high-rise, high-tech solution to a shortage of cemetery spaces. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/adelsteinjake/2019/03/18/rising-to-heaven-japans-high-rise-high-tech-solution-to-a-shortage-of-cemetery-spaces/?sh=48aa0c5c10e7

Bennett, P. (June 17, 2021). Ossauries: Where bones are laid to rest. JonsBones. https://www.jonsbones.com/blog/ossuaries-where-bones-are-laid-to-rest

Canada. (n.d.). Funeralshttp://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/oca-bc.nsf/eng/ca03069.html

Cemeteries in New Orleans. (n.d.). Frommer’s. https://www.frommers.com/destinations/new-orleans/attractions/cemeteries

Chavez, S. (August 22, 2019). The story of death Is the story of women. yes!. https://www.yesmagazine.org/issue/death/2019/08/22/dying-feminist-funeral-women-caitlin-doughty

Conway, H. (March 30, 2020). Coronavirus is changing funerals and how we deal with the dead. TheConversation.com. https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-is-changing-funerals-and-how-we-deal-with-the-dead-134842

Cremation Association of North America (CANA). (n.d.-a). https://www.cremationassociation.org/

Cremation Association of North America (CANA). (n.d.-b). Alkaline hydrolysishttps://www.cremationassociation.org/page/alkalinehydrolysis

Cremation Association of North America (CANA). (2021). CANA annual statistics report. https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.cremationassociation.org/resource/resmgr/members_statistics/StatisticsReport2021-short.pdf

Cremation Association of North America (CANA). (2022). CANA annual statistics report. https://www.cremationassociation.org/page/IndustryStatistics

Daifuku. (n.d.). Kuramae Ryoen by Shinkyouji Temple: A chic and modern columbarium featuring “light”https://www.daifuku.com/solution/casestudy/case035/#:~:text=Kuramae%20Ryoen%20was%20designed%20to,for%20memorializing%20a%20loved%20one

de Sousa, N. (January 21, 2015). Death in the city: What happens when all our cemeteries are full? The Guardianhttps://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/jan/21/death-in-the-city-what-happens-cemeteries-full-cost-dying

Duffy, A. (February 5, 2021). The green death: How environmentally friendly options are changing the way we bury our dead. Ottawa Citizenhttps://ottawacitizen.com/news/local-news/the-green-death-how-environmentally-friendly-options-are-changing-the-way-we-bury-our-dead

Eternal Reefs. (n.d.). https://www.eternalreefs.com/

Freehill, M. & Pantuso, P. (August 14, 2019). Return to nature. Yes Magazinehttps://www.yesmagazine.org/issue/death/2019/08/15/green-burial-nature-community-land

Full Circle Memory Beads. (n.d.). https://www.fullcirclememorybeads.com/

Funeral Basics. (n.d.). Grave liners & burial vaults: What’s the difference? https://www.funeralbasics.org/grave-liners-burial-vaults-whats-the-difference/

Funeral Companion (n.d.). How much does a virtual funeral cost & how to organize one?  https://funeralcompanion.com/virtual-funeral-cost/

Funeral Consumer Alliance of Stanislaud/Merced Counties (FCASMC). (n.d.). Conventional burial. Funeral Consumers Alliance of Stanislaus/Merced Counties. https://www.fcasmc.org/copy-of-legal-rights-1#:~:text=Conventional%20burial%20has%20largely%20supplanted,vault%20which%20lines%20the%20grave

Gannal, J. (2015). The project Gutenberg eBook of history of embalming. Gutenberg. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/48078/48078-h/48078-h.htm

Geiling, N. (March 28, 2014). Beneath Paris’ city of streets, there’s an empire of death waiting for tourists. Smithsonian Magazinehttps://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/paris-catacombs-180950160/

Giuffra, V., Fornaciari, G. & Ciranni, R. (December 1, 2006). A new case of ancient restoration on an Egyptian mummy.The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 92(1). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/030751330609200121

Hadjimatheou, C. (November 26, 2015). Why Greeks are exhuming their parents. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-34920068

Haker, a. (2012). Landscapes for the dead: An argument for conservation burial. Berkeley Planning Journal25, 150-159. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/7br0d6c3

Hariyono, W. (September 14, 2015). Vertical cemetery. Procedia Engineering118, 201-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.08.419

Hillinger, C. (February 4, 1990). New Orleans’ grave traditions unearthed : Customs: The many elaborate sculptures and unusual layouts of the city’s cemeteries make them an interesting tourist attraction. Los Angeles Timeshttps://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1990-02-04-vw-519-story.html

Hoffner, A. (December 2, 2016). Let’s get beyond the idea of perpetual care. Green Burial Naturally. https://www.greenburialnaturally.org/blog/2016/10/26/this-is-a-placeholder-first-blog-entry

How much does the average funeral cost in 2021? (n.d.). Dignity Memorial. https://www.dignitymemorial.com/en-ca/costs/funeral

How to plan a virtual funeral or memorial. (n.d.). Farewelling. https://www.myfarewelling.com/article/how-to-plan-a-virtual-funeral-service

Kohn, T. & Gould, H. (March 25, 2020). Small funerals, online memorials and grieving from afar: The Coronoavirus is changing how we care for the dead. TheConversation.comhttps://theconversation.com/small-funerals-online-memorials-and-grieving-from-afar-the-coronavirus-is-changing-how-we-care-for-the-dead134647

Lale, B. (January 6, 2021). Pandemic-related funeral delays causing backlog at London, Ont. Morgues. CTV Newshttps://london.ctvnews.ca/pandemic-related-funeral-delays-causing-backlog-at-london-ont-morgues-1.5256319

MacNeil, A., Findlay, B., Bimman, R., Hocking, T., Barclay, T. & Ho, J. (September 22, 2021). Exploring the use of virtual funerals during the COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review. OMEGAhttps://doi.org/10.1177/00302228211045288

Mayer, A. (May 16, 2018). Back to the land. CBC. https://newsinteractives.cbc.ca/longform/death-burial-green-recycling

McGee, A. (May 7, 2021). Donating a body to science for medical research in Canada. Canadian Funerals. https://canadianfunerals.com/donating-a-body-to-science-for-medical-research-in-canada/#.Yj4snpopAkg

McManus, J. (March 13, 2015). The world is running out of burial space. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-31837964

Mikles, N. (January 26, 2022). The pandemic changed death rituals and left grieving families without a sense of closure. TheConversation.com. https://theconversation.com/the-pandemic-changed-death-rituals-and-left-grieving-families-without-a-sense-of-closure-175302

Modern mummification: The process. (n.d.). Summan. https://www.summum.us/mummification/process.shtml

Morton, E. (March 28, 2014). Modern mummification for you and your pet. Slate.com. http://www.slate.com/blogs/atlas_obscura/2014/03/28/salt_lake_city_based_group_summum_will_mummify_you_and_your_pet.html 

Mummification. (n.d.). History Museum.  https://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/egypt/egcr06e.html

Mummy history. (August 21, 2018). History.  https://www.history.com/topics/folklore/history-of-the-mummy

Naillon, B. (n.d.). Death in the ancient Greek & Roman cultures. Classroom. https://classroom.synonym.com/irish-prayers-for-the-dead-12081382.html

Natural burial company store. (n.d.). Natural Burial Company.  https://funerals.naturalburialcompany.com/

Ontario (November 24, 2014). Arrange a funeral, burial, cremation, alkaline hydrolysis or scatteringhttps://www.ontario.ca/page/arrange-funeral-burial-cremation-alkaline-hydrolysis-or-scattering

Ontario. (n.d.). Pre-plan and pre-pay final arrangementshttps://www.ontario.ca/page/pre-plan-and-pre-pay-final-arrangements 

O’Reilly, M. (June 11, 2019). Hong Kong is running out of space for its dead. Gulf News. https://gulfnews.com/world/asia/hong-kong-is-running-out-of-space-for-its-dead-1.64529449

Perfect Memorials. (n.d.). Will the U.S. eventually run out of space for cemeteries? Perfect Memorials Consumer Guides. https://ca.perfectmemorials.com/guides/running-out-of-cemetery-space/

Philjacke. (October 28, 2018). Vertical cemetery: Graves in high rise towers. The Tower Info. https://thetowerinfo.com/vertical-cemetery-high-rise/

Prices. (n.d.). Calgary Funeral Homes.  http://www.calgaryfuneralhomes.com/prices.html

Robinson, G. (January 31, 2021). Dying to go green: The Introduction of resomation in the United Kingdom. Religions12, 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12020097

Shelvock, M., Kinsella, E. A., & Harris, D. (April 7, 2021). Beyond the corporatization of death systems: Towards green death practices. Illness, Crisis & Losshttps://doi.org/10.1177/10541373211006882

Simões, E. & Perobelli, A. (April 1, 2021). Sao Paulo exhumes old graves to make space for surging COVID-19 burials. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-brazil-idUSKBN2BO6KP

Stewart, A. (January 16, 2022). How COVID could change religion in Canada forever: ‘There is no going back’. Global News. https://globalnews.ca/news/8471775/covid-religion-canada-future/

 St. John’s Dixie Cemetery & Crematorium. (n.d.). How long are graves kept. https://stjohnsdixie.com/cemetery/how-long-are-graves-kept/

Types of mausoleums. (n.d.). Memorial Planning. https://www.memorialplanning.com/blog/types-of-mausoleums

Understanding funeral costs in Ontario. (n.d.). Passages. https://www.passagescb.ca/understanding-funeral-costs

Uzielli, J., & O’Brien, L. (December 12, 2016). What happens when cemetery space runs out? | CBC Radio. CBC News.  https://www.cbc.ca/radio/thecurrent/the-current-for-december-12-2016-1.3889638/what-happens-when-cemetery-space-runs-out-1.3889836

Vitek, A. (October 27, 2021). The unusual history of the Paris Catacombs. CultuRez-Vous. https://culturezvous.com/en/history-paris-catacombs/

Walls, L., Gorman, A. & Burke, H. (November 5, 2014). Losing the plot: Death is permanent, but your grave isn’t. TheConversation.com https://theconversation.com/losing-the-plot-death-is-permanent-but-your-grave-isnt-33459

Walsh, B. (November 1, 2017). When you die, you’ll probably be embalmed. Thank Abraham Lincoln for that. Smithsonian Magazinehttps://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/how-lincolns-embrace-embalming-birthed-american-funeral-industry-180967038/

Watts, R. (August 16, 2021). ‘A second layer of loss’: Pandemic has changed how we grieve for our loved ones. Healthy Debate. https://healthydebate.ca/2021/08/topic/pandemic-death-rituals-funerals/

We make diamonds from Ash. (n.d.). Eterneva. https://eterneva.com/

World Health Organization (WHO). (September 4, 2020). Infection prevention and control for the safe management of a dead body in the context of COVID-19: Interim guidancehttps://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/334156

Media Attributions

Atun-Shei Films. (January 20, 2019). How to fit 85 bodies in a New Orleans above-ground tomb [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/DhggumD8yKY?t=64

CBCNews.ca. (February 13, 2020). Bodies dissolved in water in this cremation alternative wanted in B.C. [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/iTD0GltXB50

Channel 10. (June 13, 2011). Grave recycling. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfvhUvSYIfg

Cremation Association of North America (CANA). (2021). CANA 2021 annual statistics report [Photograph]. https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.cremationassociation.org/resource/resmgr/members_statistics/StatsInfographic2021.pdf

Doughty, C. (April 3, 2017). A burial practice that nourishes the planet [Video]. TEDMED. https://www.ted.com/talks/caitlin_doughty_a_burial_practice_that_nourishes_the_planet

Durocher, J. (January 2016). St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 – New Orleans, Louisiana [Photograph].

Emilio Labrador. (April 10, 2010). Open casket and mourners in Florida. [Photograph]. Wikipedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_casket_and_mourners_in_Florida.jpg

Getty Museum. (August 18, 2009). The mummification process [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/-MQ5dL9cQX0

Infrogmation. (February 17, 2020). New Orleans – Mount Olivet Cemetery – 39 [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:New_Orleans_-_Mount_Olivet_Cemetery_-_39.jpg

Lawton, R. (October 21, 2006). Burial vault (enclosure) [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons.  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fresh_grave.JPG

LN9267. (October 10, 2020). Tsang Tsui Columbarium 10-10-2020 [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tsang_Tsui_Columbarium_10-10-2020.jpg

Los Angeles Fire Department. (December 29, 2021). Celebration of life captain I William R. James. [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/lafd/51794337656/

NBC News. (November 19, 2020). Funerals in the COVID-19 area face immense and emotional hurdles | NBC News NOW. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0QoEpDjT21c

News Direct. (November 27, 2016). Ecological burial pod turns bodies into trees [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/afc91CbdBzY

Ottawa Citizen. (February 5, 2021). Die as you lived: What is a green burial [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/G8WLYCFgMnI

Qeepr. (n.d.). Environmental impact of funerals infographic [Infographic]. Talk Death. https://www.talkdeath.com/environmental-impact-funerals-infographic/ 

TED. (October 14, 2011). Jae Rhim Lee: My mushroom burial suit [Video]. YouTube. https://www.ted.com/talks/jae_rhim_lee_my_mushroom_burial_suit

TED. (April 3, 2017). A burial practice that nourishes the planet | Caitlin Doughty [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zcMj4Az1MwE

Thiemann, R. (December 8, 2019). Tutankhamun artifact [Photograph]. Unsplash. https://unsplash.com/photos/c0DKAycklGY

The Good Funeral Guide. (February 12, 2022). A willow coffin decorated with flowers is moved into a cremator [Photograph]. Unsplash. https://unsplash.com/photos/pawEgfvDUqg  

Vice News. (April 21, 2018). Hong Kong is running out of space to bury its dead [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/KepeRLQ_G1A

Vorel, M. (September 2015). Graves on cemetery. [Photograph]. Libreshot. https://libreshot.com/cemetery/

Welcome Images. (March 27, 2018). Cemetery Happy Valley. [Photograph]. Wikipedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cemetery,_Happy_Valley,_Hong_Kong._Wellcome_V0036675.jpg

Cover Photo: Simak, E. (June 27, 2010). Nar Valley Green Burials – geograph.org.uk – 1936657 [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nar_Valley_Green_Burials_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1936657.jpg


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On Death and Dying (Original) Copyright © 2022 by Jacqueline Lewis is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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