28 Linguistics & Languages

Essentials of Linguistics

This peer-reviewed open textbook covers the core areas of theoretical linguistics (phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics), supplemented with discussion of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic findings.

Includes: Videos, and interactive assessments.

May suit: LINGUIST 1A03/1AA3/2PS3 and MOHAWK 1Z03.

Essentials of Linguistics, 2nd edition

This Second Edition of Essentials of Linguistics is considerably revised and expanded, including several new chapters, diverse language examples from signed and spoken languages, enhanced accessibility features, and an orientation towards equity and justice. While the primary audience is Canadian students of Introduction to Linguistics, it is also suitable for learners elsewhere, in online, hybrid, or in-person courses.

Includes: Videos, audio, check your understanding questions (with answers), summaries, and exercises.

May suit: LINGUIST 1A03/1AA3/2L03/2PS3/2SY3/3C03/3II3/3P03.

How Language Works (Gasser)

This LibreTexts looks at a range of introductory topics and themes related to linguistics, the science of language. It examines some of the biases we all have concerning language and uses this as a base for its exploration.

Includes: Exercises, instructor and student resources.

May suit: LINGUIST 1A03/1AA3.

Languages and Worldview

Asking and answering questions about what culture entails and examines the fundamental properties and intertwining nature of language and culture. This text explores linguistic relativity, lexical differences among languages and intercultural communication, including high and low contexts.

Includes: Reflection questions, and videos (with transcripts).

May suit: LINGUIST 1A03/1AA3/2LL3.

Analyzing Meaning: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics

As the title indicates, this book is truly an INTRODUCTION: it provides a solid foundation which will prepare students to take more advanced and specialized courses in semantics and/or pragmatics. It is also intended as a reference for fieldworkers doing primary research on under-documented languages, to help them write grammatical descriptions that deal carefully and clearly with semantic issues. The approach adopted here is largely descriptive and non-formal (or, in some places, semi-formal), although some basic logical notation is introduced. The book is written at a level which should be appropriate for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students. It presupposes some previous coursework in linguistics, but does not presuppose any background in formal logic or set theory.

Includes: Case studies, summaries, discussion exercises, and homework exercises.

May suit: LINGUIST 1AA3/2SY3.

Psychology of Language

In this textbook, students are introduced to the fundamental principles of linguistics and psycholinguistics. Students will explore theories and models of language development, comprehension and production as well as bilingualism and reading. All of these topics are approached from a Canadian perspective and include ideas from Indigenous cultures and languages of Canada.

Includes: Activities, summaries, key takeaways, and exercises in critical thinking.

May suit: LINGUIST 1A03/1AA3/2PS3.

ASCCC OERI Resource Page for Spanish

A collection of resources that have been subject to a peer-review process and/or that have been selected for use by faculty in the California community colleges to teach Spanish courses.

May suit: SPANISH 1Z06/1A03/1AA3/2Z03/2ZZ3.

Español abierto

A collection of open textbooks, assignments, and other educational resources for Spanish learners.

May suit: SPANISH 1Z06/1A03/1AA3/2Z03/2ZZ3.


¡Bienvenidos! offers students an introduction to listening, speaking, reading and writing in Spanish and to the culture of Spanish-speaking regions.

Includes: Activities, and examples.

May suit: SPANISH 1Z06.


The University of Kansas Collaborative Digital Spanish Project (Acceso) is an open-access, digital learning environment designed to promote the acquisition of Spanish and the development of cultural understanding of the varied groups of people who share Spanish as a common language.

Includes: Videos, interactive activities, interviews, vocabulary, workbook and instructor resources (model syllabi, lesson plans, rubrics and more). Instructor resources can be requested through: https://acceso.ku.edu/instructor/materials.shtml.

Workbook to accompany the textbook 

May suit: SPANISH 1A03/1AA3/2Z03/2ZZ3.

Gateway to Chinese

Gateway to Chinese resources are designed to give students the valuable feedback they need to improve language skills in the critical early stages of learning. An extensive number of interactive exercises allow students to practice what they learn. With these tools, instructors can utilize valuable classroom time to do what they do best: teach!

Includes: Audio examples, practice exercises, flashcards, video lessons, word-order exercises, listening comprehension practice, and podcasts.

May suit: CHINESE 1Z06.

Tutt* a tavola! Volume 1
Tutt* a tavola! Volume 2

This two-volume set is intended for Elementary Italian over two semesters. In general, each chapter addresses three to four grammatical topics and includes a vocabulary section related to a cultural theme with the vocabulary incorporated into the grammatical presentations and exercises. There is also a short reading in each chapter regarding different aspects of culture and language to address those questions of diversity and inclusion that are often missing from textbooks.

Includes: Pronunciation guide, videos, exercises (with answers), cultural notes, and study tips.

May suit: ITALIAN 1Z06.

Grenzenlos Deutsch

This full-year curriculum is intended as a no-cost alternative to current, more traditional textbooks in the field. It mixes materials rooted in real-world, contemporary communication scenarios, multimedia content, and online learning activities. The Grenzenlos curriculum ensures that the topics of discussion in the language classroom are relevant to and reflect today’s world.

Includes: Interactive activities, speaking prompts, audio, exercises, flashcards (on Quizlet), and videos.

May suit: GERMAN 1Z06/1B03/1BB3/2Z03/2ZZ3.

German Frame-semantic Online Lexicon

This open German-English vocabulary resource applies the linguistic theory of Frame Semantics to the language classroom in an effort to teach the meanings of vocabulary items and how to use them appropriately.

Includes: Videos, and activities.

May suit: GERMAN 1Z06/1B03/1BB3.

Willkommen: Deutsch für alle

Willkommen: Deutsch für alle is an innovative first-year German language e-textbook, designed as Open Educational Resource (OER), for learning German at the college/university level. It features a task-based, communicative approach which provides students with opportunities to communicate in German in a variety of contexts and situations. Through a wide range of activities, students develop and practice their language skills which they showcase at the end of each chapter by accomplishing a specific task.

Includes: Videos, interactive activities, pair/group work activities, listening, student handouts, Quizlets, culminating activities, and instructor resources (presenting material).

May suit: GERMAN 1Z06/1B03/1BB3/2Z03/2ZZ3.

Korean Through Folktales

Korean Through Folktales consists of four chapters and each centers on a famous Korean folktale. The lessons and values that famous folktales teach are embedded and permeated in various aspects of the Koran culture. Using folktales in the curriculum will provide an engaging way to expose students to a slice of the target culture that native Koreans are naturally exposed to at an early age. Through the selected folktales and various activities offered in the book, students can gain cultural knowledge and insights into traditional and cultural values while they are given linguistic lessons to reinforce their acquired skills and to apply the learned materials in an integrated approach.

Includes: Videos, warm-up activities, key vocabulary (on Quizlet), and post-viewing activities (with vocabulary review, exercises, creative writing and discussion).

May suit: KOREAN 1ZZ3.

Elementary Arabic II

This open-source book on Elementary Arabic is aimed at undergraduate students who are taking Arabic in their second semester. At this stage, students would have covered the alphabets and writing systems and are ready to explore language structure in an interactive and lively approach. This OER will be unique in its presentation of Arabic language content through theme-based modules. Each theme is addressed through vocabulary, grammar, reading, speaking, culture, and writing components.

Includes: Vocabulary (with recording for pronunciation), activities, self-check quizzes, examples, videos, key takeaways, homework assignments, reviews, and sample test.

May suit: ARABIC 2AR3 and SCAR 2AR3.

Arabic and English Sentence Patterns: A Comparative Guide

This text explores verb time, tense, aspect, and mood through comparison of Arabic and English sentence patterns. It includes examples of the Arabic patterns from classical and popular sources so Arabic students can learn by explanation and example how to formulate cohesive and grammatically correct sentence structure.

Includes: Examples, discussions, and charts.

May suit: ARABIC 2AA3 and SCAR 2AA3.

Greek and Latin Roots: Part 1 – Latin

This OER covers Latin material.

Includes: Examples, summary of vocabulary tables, end-of-chapter exercises and answer key.

May suit: LATIN 1Z03/1ZZ3.

Greek and Latin Roots: Part 2 – Greek

This OER covers Greek material.

Includes: Examples, summary of vocabulary tables, end-of-chapter exercises and answer key.

May suit: GREEK 1Z03/1ZZ3.

Spunti: Italiano elementare 1

Spunti: Italiano elementare 1 is a unique program for Italian language learning, authored by the Italian faculty of Muhlenberg College (Pennsylvania, USA). Spunti 1 provides fully elaborated course materials for first-semester Italian that college instructors can use and adapt, or students can use on their own.

Includes: Grammar explanations, cultural material, vocabulary, videos, self-correcting interactive exercises, printable packets of in-class activities, and instructor resources (lesson plans for one semester).

May suit: ITALIAN 1A03.

Spunti: Italiano elementare 2

Welcome to Spunti: Italiano elementare 2 – a new, unique program, authored by the Italian faculty of Muhlenberg College, that takes the place of a traditional language textbook. Spunti is a fully designed course that a college instructor of Italian can use and adapt.

Includes: Grammatical explanations, printable activity packets, interactive exercises, and instructor resources (complete semester lesson plans).

May suit: ITALIAN 1AA3/1Z06.

Libro Libre: Beginning Spanish

One of the most important things we can do to hold ourselves accountable for our learning is to engage in goal setting and metacognition—a fancy term for thinking about the way we think and learn. The goals we set should be specific and achievable. Something like “Speak Spanish” is too broad, we need to focus on the steps we need to take to get there and the signs that we will see as proof of our progress.

Includes: Activities, reflections, audio, and video.

May suit: SPANISH 1A03/1AA3/1Z06.

JUNTXS: Introductory Spanish

JUNTXS is an open access educational resource which can be used in conjunction with a variety of approaches to support beginning learners of Spanish. This media-rich learning resource is designed to guide learners in their Spanish language learning journey through a critical and intercultural lens and to provide regular opportunities to explore, practise and improve their ability to read, speak, and understand this language as it is used across the Spanish-speaking world.

Includes: Videos. activities, Spotify playlist, and mini quiz.

May suit: SPANISH 1A03/1AA3/1Z06.

Hola a Todos: Elementary Spanish I

This is a preliminary Open Textbook as created by the UNG Elementary Spanish I grant team using a Round Six Textbook Transformation Grant. The textbook is currently composed of original instructional materials created for the OER-based course, and the team is working to create a full open textbook at a later date.

Includes: Grammar and vocabulary pre-class activities, lectures and post-class homework.

May suit: SPANISH 1A03.

A Foundation Course in Reading German

This textbook guides a learner who has no previous German experience to gain the ability to accurately understand formal written German prose, aided only by a comprehensive dictionary.

Includes: Activities.

May suit: GERMAN 1Z06.

The Languages of Berkeley: An Online Exhibition

This online library exhibition celebrates the magnificent diversity of languages that advance research, teaching, and learning at the University of California, Berkeley. Taking place between February 2019 and October 2020, it was the point of embarkation for an exciting sequential exhibit that built on one post per week, showcasing an array of digitized works in the original language chosen by those who work with these languages on a daily basis — librarians, professors, lecturers, staff, and students.

May suit: LINGUIST 2LL3.

Languages LibreText 

A collection of open textbooks, assignments, and other educational resources on learning specific languages: American Sign Language, Arabic, Chinese, English as a Second Language, French, German, Greek, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Swahili.


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OER By Discipline Guide Version 2 Copyright © 2018 by Lauri M. Aesoph is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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