Words are the basis of how a reader or listener judges you, the writer and speaker. When you write an academic paper or speak in a business interview, you want to be sure to choose your words carefully. In our casual, everyday talk, we often use a lot of “ums,” “likes,” “yeahs,” and so on. This everyday language is not appropriate for formal contexts, such as academic papers and business interviews. You should switch between different ways of speaking and writing depending on whether the context is formal or informal.
What do you notice about the previous paragraph? You might notice that the language sounds informal, or casual, like someone might talk with a friend or family member. The paragraph also uses a lot of slang. Slang is a type of language that is informal and playful. It often changes over time. The slang of the past is different than the slang of today, but some slang has carried over into the present. Slang also varies by region and culture. The important thing to understand is that slang is casual talk, and you should avoid using it in formal contexts. There are literally thousands of slang words and expressions. Table C.1.8.1 “Slang Expressions” explains just a few of the more common terms.
Dear Ms. O’Connor:
I am writing to follow up on my interview from last week. First of all, it was awesome to meet you. You are a really cool lady. I believe I would be a pro at all the stuff you mentioned that would be required of me in this job. I am not a workaholic, but I do work hard and “take care of business.” Haha. Please contact me if you have any questions or concerns.
M. Ernest Anderson
Idioms are expressions that have a meaning different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words in the expression. Because English contains many idioms, nonnative English speakers have difficulties making logical sense of idioms and idiomatic expressions. The more you are exposed to English, however, the more idioms you will come to understand. Until then, memorizing the more common idioms may be of some help.
What if you come across an idiom that you do not understand? There are clues that can help you. They are called context clues. Context clues are words or phrases around the unknown word or phrase that may help you decipher its meaning.
Definition or explanation clue. An idiom may be explained immediately after its use.
Sentence: I felt like I was sitting on pins and needles I was so nervous.
Restatement or synonym clues. An idiom may be simplified or restated.
Sentence: The young girl felt as though she had been sent to the dog house when her mother punished her for fighting in school.
Contrast or Antonym clues. An idiom may be clarified by a contrasting phrase or antonym that is near it.
Sentence: Chynna thought the 5k marathon would be a piece of cake, but it turned out to be very difficult.
Pay attention to the signal word but, which tells the reader that an opposite thought or concept is occurring.