Chapter 11: Review and Exercises

Chapter Review and Exercises

Key Takeaways

Key Icon

  • When you research, you’ll need to build on the ideas of others. Citation is a way to give credit to the people whose ideas influenced you.
  • At work, your employer usually owns the copyright to your work, so you’ll end up building on the work of others and, in some workplace documents, you may not cite everything in the same way. In school, however, you are expected to formally give credit through citation to your sources. The same applies to any research reports you would produce at work.
  • When it comes to citation, you have two tools: in-text citations (which go at the end of any sentences where the source was referenced) and bibliographical references (a longer citation at the end of the work that helps the reader locate the source). In the workplace, you may also use footnotes and links.
  • If the words of the source are important, you should quote. Put quotation marks around the words and then provide an in-text citation. In general, you will include some sort of analysis that explains why the quote is meaningful to your topic.
  • If the ideas of the source are important, you will reference and either paraphrase or summarize the source. This involves changing the language of the source so that it matches your document. Don’t just replace a few words. Restate the author’s point so that it matches the tone of your document. Put an in-text citation at the end of the sentence.
  • Citation practices can be tricky in the age of the Internet. You can use citation generators, but only as long as you check to make sure they generate correct entries.

Exercises for Reflection


  1. Create a quiz that tests your classmates’ citation skills.
  2. Come up with 10 questions that you still have about citation. Compare them to your partner’s questions. See how many you can answer together. If you don’t know the answer, ask your instructor or see if you can find the answer in Citation Resources under the “Resources for Students” section of the Fanshawe library  website or in  Appendix E: Documentation and APA Style of this textbook.
  3. Complete a Citation Scavenger Hunt. Using the Internet and the citation guidelines you assimilated so far, do the following:
    • Find a blog post about the rising costs of textbooks and cite it.
    • Find an article by Alicia Elliot, then paraphrase a point she makes and create an in-text citation.
    • Cite a scholarly article in APA.
    • Create a block quote.
    • Cite a tweet in APA.
    • Answer the question, “If a student does a survey, should it go in an APA bibliography?”
    • Cite a news article without an author in APA.


This chapter contains material from Choosing and Using Sources: A Guide To Academic Research by the Ohio State University Libraries, which is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


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Chapter 11: Review and Exercises Copyright © 2021 by Melissa Ashman; Arley Cruthers; eCampusOntario; Ontario Business Faculty; and University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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