4 Research and Citation Styles

Advanced Research Skills: Conducting Literature and Systematic Reviews

Kelly Dermody, Cecile Farnum, Daniel Jakubek, Jo-Anne Petropoulos, Jane Schmidt, and Reece Steinberg (Toronto Metropolitan University)


Licence: CC BY 4.0

A short course for graduate students to increase their proficiency in conducting research for literature and systematic reviews. After taking the mini-course graduate students will understand how to conduct their review, how to execute appropriate searches, manage their results, and demonstrate strategic reading skills. Module 1 provides a quick overview of the different types of academic reviews and the steps involved in conducting them. Module 2 demonstrates how to formulate a research question and how to search for sources. Module 3 discusses how to select and organize sources. Finally, Module 4 outlines techniques for reading and assessing the quality of sources. The course contains interactive H5P activities for students to test their learning. Students have access to a workbook of reflective activities to document their research process. The intended outcome is to ensure graduate students understand how to conduct and manage their own research for their academic success and future careers.

Formats: Pressbooks webbook, EPUB, and PDF

Includes: Research Roadmap Workbook [Google Doc – make a copy]


APA Style Citations – 7th edition

Ulrike Kestler (Kwantlen Polytechnic University)


Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

The tutorial covers why it is important to use citations, elements of common source types, and how to create reference and in-text citations based on the 7th edition APA guidelines. This tutorial can also be used as a reference resource.

Formats: Pressbooks webbook, EPUB, PDF, and more


Chicago Style Citations – 17th edition

Ulrike Kestler and Sigrid Kargut (Kwantlen Polytechnic University)


Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

The tutorial covers why it is important to use citations, elements of common source types, and how to create footnotes or endnotes and bibliographic citations based on the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. This tutorial can also be used as a reference resource.

Format: Pressbooks webbook


Choosing & Using Sources: A Guide to Academic Research, 1st Canadian Edition

Lindsey MacCallum (Ohio State University), adapted by the University of Regina

Licence: CC BY 4.0

Canadian adaptation by the University of Regina, with engaging graphics, compelling examples, and easy-to-understand explanations that make Choosing and Using Sources: A Guide to Academic Research, a valuable, open-access resource for completing research-based writing assignments and projects. Students will be better equipped to tackle the challenges of developing research questions, evaluating and choosing the right sources, searching for information, avoiding plagiarism, and much more.

Formats: Pressbooks webbook, EPUB, PDF, and MOBI


Doing Research: A Student’s Guide to Finding and Using the Best Sources

Celia Brinkerhoff (Kwantlen Polytechnic University)


Licence: CC BY 4.0

A modules-based approach to learning research skills that emphasizes the reflective nature of information discovery, the contextual basis for evaluating that information, and a recognition that information has value.

Formats: Pressbooks webbook, EPUB, PDF, and more

Reviews: Open Textbook Library


Engineering and Information: Research Skills for Engineers

Katie Harding, Alanna Carter, Shelir Ebrahimi, and Eva Mueller (McMaster University)


Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Format: Pressbooks webbook


Health Professions Education Research Primer

Edited by Teresa M. Chan (McMaster University)


Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Formats: Pressbooks webbook and PDF


Library 160: Introduction to College Level Research

Iowa State University Library Instruction Services


Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0

You will learn how scholarly information is produced, organized, and accessed; how to construct and use effective search strategies in a variety of web tools and scholarly databases; how to choose finding tools appropriate to the type of information you need; critical thinking skills in the evaluation of resources; and best practices in the ethical use of information.

Formats: Pressbooks webbook, EPUB, and PDF


Referencing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers

Lorisia MacLeod (James Smith Cree Nation and The Alberta Library) and NorQuest College Library


Licence: CC BY-NC 4.0

Guide on citing and referencing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers in APA 7th Edition and MLA 8th Edition. Based on the templates suggested by Lorisia MacLeod (James Smith Cree Nation) in the 2021 article, “More Than Personal Communication: Templates For Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers,” KULA: Knowledge Creation, Dissemination, and Preservation Studies 5 (1): https://doi.org/10.18357/kula.135.

Format: Online (LibGuide)


Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and Practices

Anol Bhattacherjee (University of South Florida)


Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0

This book is designed to introduce doctoral and graduate students to the process of scientific research in the social sciences, business, education, public health, and related disciplines. It is a one-stop, comprehensive, and compact source for foundational concepts in behavioral research, and can serve as a stand-alone text or as a supplement to research readings in any course on research methods.

The contents and examples are designed for anyone interested in behavioral research (not just information systems people), and so, the book should appeal to most business programs, social sciences, education, public health, and related disciplines.

Also available in Arabic, Chinese, Korean, Persian, Ukrainian, and Vietnamese.

Format: PDF


University Writing

Auburn University

Last updated 2021

Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Resources that University Writing at Auburn University has developed to support students and instructors across the disciplines in their writing and writing instruction. We define writing broadly, so you will find resources on ePortfolios, visual design, professional communication, and presentations in addition to traditional writing tasks like reflective writing, literature reviews, peer review, and editing and proofing.

Formats: Online, Word, and PDF


Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers

Michael A. Caulfield (Washington State University Vancouver)

2017, updated 2021

Licence: CC BY 4.0

This is an unabashedly practical guide for the student fact-checker. It supplements generic information literacy with the specific web-based techniques that can get you closer to the truth on the web more quickly.

This guide will show you how to use date filters to find the source of viral content, how to assess the reputation of a scientific journal in less than five seconds, and how to see if a tweet is really from the famous person you think it is or from an impostor. It’ll show you how to find pages that have been deleted, figure out who paid for the website you’re looking at, and whether the weather portrayed in that viral video actual matches the weather in that location on that day. It’ll show you how to check a Wikipedia page for recent vandalism and how to search the text of almost any printed book to verify a quote. It’ll teach you to parse URLs and scan search result blurbs so that you are more likely to get to the right result on the first click. And it’ll show you how to avoid baking confirmation bias into your search terms.

Format: Pressbooks webbook



University of Guelph, University of Waterloo, and Wilfrid Laurier University

Licence: CC BY-NC 4.0

Write Online was designed by writing experts from three universities who work with students on a daily basis. Our guides introduce you to the particularities of these genres, provide practical strategies for you to try in your own writing, and use model texts to help you better understand the organization, format, and language used in each of these types of writing. Writing genres covered: case study report, lab report, literature review, and reflective writing.

Format: Online


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OER by Discipline Guide: University of Ottawa (Version 2.0 - June 2022) Copyright © 2022 by Mélanie Brunet and Catherine Lachaîne is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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