3 Migrations in Colonial North America

Who was mobile in colonial North America of the 16th-19th centuries? How were migrations in what would become Canada shaped by race, slavery, and indenture?

José C. Moya, “Canada and the Atlantic World : Migration from a Hemispheric Perspective, 1500-1800” in Benjamin Bryce and Alexander Freud, Entangling Migration History: Borderlands and transnationalism in the United States and Canada (University Press of Florida, 2015).

Sylvia Van Kirk, “From “Marrying-In” to “Marrying-Out”: Changing Patterns of Aboriginal/Non-Aboriginal Marriage in Colonial Canada,” Frontiers: A Journal of Women’s Studies, 3 (2002): 1-11.

Peter Moogk, “Reluctant Exiles : Emigrants from France in Canada before 1760”, William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, vol. 46, n° 3, (1989): 50-502.

Jan Noel, Along a River: The First French Canadian Women (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2013).

Adele Perry, “Whose Sisters and What Eyes? White Women, Race, and Immigration to British Columbia, 1849–1871”, in Marlene Epp and Franca Iacovetta, Sisters or Strangers: Immigrant, Ethnic, and Racialized Women in Canadian History (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2nd Edition, 2017).

Hudson Beattie, Judith, and Helen Buss, eds. Undelivered Letters to Hudson’s Bay Company Men on the Northwest Coast of America, 1830-57 (Vancouver and Toronto, UBC Press, 2003).

Afua Cooper, The Hanging of Angélique: The Untold Story of Canadian Slavery and the Burning of Old Montreal (Toronto: HarperCollins, 2011).

Charmaine Nelson, Slavery, geography and empire in nineteenth-century marine landscapes of Montreal and Jamaica (London: Routledge, 2016), Chapter Two “A Tale of Two Empires” and Chapter Three “Representing the Enslaved in Montreal.”

James Walker, “Land and Settlement in Nova Scotia: The establishment of a free black community,” The Black Loyalists: The Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, 1783-1870 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992).


Norma Bailey, Ikwe, 1985, 57 min.

Toronto Public Library, Freedom City.

Naomi Moyer & Funké Aladejebi, Remember / Resist / Redraw #02: Chloe Cooley, Black History, and Slavery in Canada (Graphic History Collective, 2017).


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Canadian Immigration History Syllabus Copyright © 2019 by Laura Madokoro; Daniel Ross; Franca Iacovetta; Marlene Epp; Lisa Chilton; Gilberto Fernandes; Jordan Stanger-Ross; Michael Akladios; Paul-Étienne Rainville; and Sylvie Taschereau is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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