5.2 – Cause and Effect

Learning Objectives

  • Determine the purpose and structure of cause and effect in writing.
  • Understand how to write a cause-and-effect essay.

The Purpose of Cause and Effect in Writing

It is often considered human nature to ask, “why?” and “how?” We want to know how our child got sick so we can better prevent it from happening in the future, or why our colleague received a pay raise because we want one as well. We want to know how much money we will save over the long term if we buy a hybrid car. These examples identify only a few of the relationships we think about in our lives, but each shows the importance of understanding cause and effect.

A cause is something that produces an event or condition; an effect is what results from an event or condition. The purpose of the cause-and-effect essay is to determine how various phenomena relate in terms of origins and results. Sometimes the connection between cause and effect is clear, but often determining the exact relationship between the two is very difficult. For example, the following effects of a cold may be easily identifiable: a sore throat, runny nose, and a cough. But determining the cause of the sickness can be far more difficult. A number of causes are possible, and to complicate matters, these possible causes could have combined to cause the sickness. That is, more than one cause may be responsible for any given effect. Therefore, cause-and-effect discussions are often complicated and frequently lead to debates and arguments.


Use the complex nature of cause and effect to your advantage. Often it is not necessary, or even possible, to find the exact cause of an event or to name the exact effect. So, when formulating a thesis, you can claim one of a number of causes or effects to be the primary, or main, cause or effect. As soon as you claim that one cause or one effect is more crucial than the others, you have developed a thesis.

Exercise 1

Consider the causes and effects in the following thesis statements. List a cause and effect for each one on your own sheet of paper.

  1. The growing childhood obesity epidemic is a result of technology.
  2. Much of the wildlife is dying because of the oil spill.
  3. The town continued programs that it could no longer afford, so it went bankrupt.
  4. More young people became politically active as use of the Internet spread throughout society.
  5. While many experts believed the rise in violence was due to the poor economy, it was really due to the summer-long heat wave.

Exercise 2

Write three cause-and-effect thesis statements of your own for each of the following five broad topics.

  1. Health and nutrition
  2. Sports
  3. Media
  4. Politics
  5. History

The Structure of a Cause-and-Effect Essay

The cause-and-effect essay opens with a general introduction to the topic, which then leads to a thesis that states the main cause, main effect, or various causes and effects of a condition or event.

The cause-and-effect essay can be organized in one of the following two primary ways:

  1. Start with the cause and then talk about the effects.
  2. Start with the effect and then talk about the causes.

For example, if your essay were on childhood obesity, you could start by talking about the effect of childhood obesity and then discuss the cause or you could start the same essay by talking about the cause of childhood obesity and then move to the effect.

Regardless of which structure you choose, be sure to explain each element of the essay fully and completely. Explaining complex relationships requires the full use of evidence, such as scientific studies, expert testimony, statistics, and anecdotes.

Because cause-and-effect essays determine how phenomena are linked, they make frequent use of certain words and phrases that denote such linkage.

Phrases of causation – examples

  • as a result
  • because
  • hence
  • this
  • consequently
  • due to
  • since
  • therefore

 The conclusion should wrap up the discussion and reinforce the thesis, leaving the reader with a clear understanding of the relationship that was analyzed.


Be careful of resorting to empty speculation. In writing, speculation amounts to unsubstantiated guessing. Writers are particularly prone to such trappings in cause-and-effect arguments due to the complex nature of finding links between phenomena. Be sure to have clear evidence to support the claims that you make.

Exercise 3

Look at some of the cause-and-effect relationships from Exercise 2. Outline the links you listed. Outline one using a cause-then-effect structure. Outline the other using the effect-then-cause structure.

Writing a Cause-and-Effect Essay

Choose an event or condition that you think has an interesting cause-and-effect relationship. Introduce your topic in an engaging way. End your introduction with a thesis that states the main cause, the main effect, or both.

Organize your essay by starting with either the cause-then-effect structure or the effect-then-cause structure. Within each section, you should clearly explain and support the causes and effects using a full range of evidence. If you are writing about multiple causes or multiple effects, you may choose to sequence either in terms of order of importance. In other words, order the causes from least to most important (or vice versa), or order the effects from least important to most important (or vice versa).

Use the phrases of causation when trying to forge connections between various events or conditions. This will help organize your ideas and orient the reader. End your essay with a conclusion that summarizes your main points and reinforces your thesis. Below, you can read a sample cause-and-effect essay.

Sample cause-and-effect essay

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Cause and Effect: The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on College Success

George-Anne Lerner

     Do you cram for tests and pull “all-nighters” for assignments, hoping to improve your grades? You’re not alone. The majority of college students say that they are sleep deprived, and more than 70% of them get less than the recommended 8 hours of rest (Hershner & Chervin, 2014). Unfortunately, by staying up late to study, students may be undermining their goals of improving their grades. Getting enough sleep is vital to a college student’s success; sleep deprivation creates challenges for a person’s physical, mental health, and learning.

     Sleep and physical well-being have a close relationship, especially in regards to the immune system. Lack of sleep can lead to increased stress and inflammation, which can weaken the immune system and make a person likely to get sick (Morris, 2022). Additionally, Besedovksy et al. (2012) reports that sleep deprivation can also disrupt hormones that regulate hunger and physical performance, leading to potential weight gain and decreased physical performance. Several studies indicate that “the shorter your sleep, the shorter your life span” (MacDonald, 2022, para.7). To ensure physical well-being, college students should try to get a good night’s sleep consistently.

     Just as sleep deprivation undermines the physical body, a lack of sleep can have a major impact on mental health. Research has shown that good sleep quality is linked to lower rates of depression, anxiety, and even suicidal thinking (Morris, 2022). Taylor et al. (2011) note that this is especially true in college students, who are a population that is particularly susceptible to the onset of mental health disorders. Poor sleep can lead to a range of negative outcomes, including decreased energy levels, impaired memory and attention span, and a general feeling of grumpiness (MacDonald, 2022). There is also a complex relationship between sleep, mood disorders, and suicide, with insomnia and nightmares being potential risk factors for suicidal ideation (Hershner & Chervin, 2014). Additionally, long term difficulty in falling asleep is linked to feelings of loss of pleasure, punishment, and disliking oneself (Hershner & Chervin, 2014). Therefore, it is important to prioritize sleep in order to maintain good mental health.

     In addition to supporting mental health, a good night’s sleep helps college students succeed academically.  A study of college students showed that better sleep quality, quantity, and consistency over the last month was associated with improved grades (Morris, 2022). Studies also reveal that sleep deprivation impairs memory, attention and executive functioning, which are critical skills required for academic success (Okano et al., 2019). Consistent sleep patterns are shown to directly lead to higher test scores (Ho et al., 2022). Many studies highlight the impact that nighttime sleep habits have in predicting future academic performance. Better quality, longer duration, and greater consistency of sleep are strongly associated with success in college.

     In conclusion, sleep is a vital aspect of a college student’s life that should not be overlooked. The benefits of a good night’s sleep extend far beyond just physical and mental health; it also has a positive impact on academic success. Lack of sleep can lead to many problems that diminish the quality and enjoyment of the overall college experience; in contrast, a healthy sleep routine will lead to better grades, improved memory and attention, and better academic performance. In order to achieve success in college and beyond, it is crucial for students to prioritize a good night’s sleep.


Besedovsky, L., Lange, T., & Born, J. (2012). Sleep and immune function. Pflugers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, 463(1), 121–137. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00424-011-1044-0

Hershner, S. D., & Chervin, R. D. (2014). Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students. Nature and Science of Sleep, 6, 73–84. https://doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S62907

Ho, G.W., Yang, Z., Xing, L., Tsang, K. K.-T., Ruan, H. D., & Li, Y. (2022). Nighttime sleep awakening frequency and its consistency predict future academic performance in college students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(5), 2933. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052933

MacDonald, G. (2022, November 7). Canadians are not getting enough sleep – and that’s a big problem. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/style/article-sleep-crisis-canada/

Morris, M. (2022, August 28). Why college students should feast on sleep. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/ca/blog/college-wellness/202208/why-college-students-should-feast-sleep

Okano, K., Kaczmarzyk, J. R., Dave, N., Gabrieli, J. D. E., & Grossman, J. C. (2019). Sleep quality, duration, and consistency are associated with better academic performance in college students. NPJ Science of Learning, 4(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41539-019-0055-z

Taylor, D. J., Gardner, C. E., Bramoweth, A. D., Williams, J. M., Roane, B. M., Grieser, E. A., & Tatum, J. I. (2011). Insomnia and mental health in college students. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 9(2), 107–116. https://doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2011.557992

Source: “Cause and Effect: The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on College Success” by Amanda Quibell is licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0.

Exercise 4

Choose one of the ideas you outlined in Exercise 3 and write a full cause-and-effect essay. Be sure to include an engaging introduction, a clear thesis, strong evidence and examples, and a thoughtful conclusion.

    Key Takeaways

    • The purpose of the cause-and-effect essay is to determine how various phenomena are related.
    • The thesis states what the writer sees as the main cause, main effect, or various causes and effects of a condition or event.
    • The cause-and-effect essay can be organized in one of these two primary ways:
      1. Start with the cause and then talk about the effect.
      2. Start with the effect and then talk about the cause.
    • Strong evidence is particularly important in the cause-and-effect essay due to the complexity of determining connections between phenomena.
    • Phrases of causation are helpful in signaling links between various elements in the essay.

    Attribution & References

    Except where otherwise noted, this chapter is adapted from ” 10.8 Cause and Effect” In Writing for Success by University of Minnesota licensed under CC BY-NC 4.0. Adaptations were made to improve accessibility in this chapter including the creation of text equivalents of graphics. Essay sample was updated to a new topic with references & in-text citations.


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    Communication Essentials for College Copyright © 2022 by Jen Booth, Emily Cramer & Amanda Quibell, Georgian College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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