Chapter 1

  1. See www.cbc.ca/news/politics/story/2012/02/27/pol-cp-first-nations-education.html
  2. The Assembly of First Nations (www.afn.ca) has estimated that children in on-reserve schools receive between $2000 and $3000 less per pupil than students in provincial schools.
  3. See Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, Attawapiskat Registered Population, http://pse5-esd5.ainc-inac.gc.ca/fnp/Main/Search/FNRegPopulation.aspx?BAND_NUMBER=143&lang=eng
  4. See Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development, Attawapiskat First Nations Elementary School, Chronology of Events, www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100016328
  5. www.youtube.com/watch?v=6abZ0LFT5CQ
  6. See www.cbc.ca/news/canada/sudbury/story/2011/11/07/sby-attawapiskat-housing.html
  7. See Canadian Geographic, “The State of First Nations Education in Canada,” www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/dec10/attawapiskat2.asp
  8. See www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/CanadaAM/20080306/ndp_youtube_080306/
  9. Strahl was Minister for Indian Affairs and Northern Development until August 6, 2010. The current minister is John Morris Duncan and the name of the department has changed from “Indian Affairs” to “Aboriginal Affairs.”
  10. See Linda Goyette, Canadian Geographic, “The State of First Nations Education in Canada,” www.canadiangeographic.ca/magazine/dec10/attawapiskat3.asp
  11. See www.fncaringsociety.com/shannensdream/motion-571
  12. See http://cdnsba.org/all/press-releases/press-release-motion-571-supported-in-principle-by-canadian-school-boards-association
  13. See www.oecta.on.ca/wps/portal/!ut/p/c0/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3jDIBNLI2cfIwODQFdLAyPLAEcfE0MfQwtfE_2CbEdFAEbuZWI!/?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/wps/wcm/connect/Web%20Content/oecta/news+and+events/news/news+items/news+archives+2010/news+2010+dec+shannen
  14. See www.marketwire.com/press-release/minister-duncan-attawapiskat-first-nation-announce-awarding-construction-contract-attawapiskat-1628497.htm
  15. See Linda Goyette, Canadian Geographic, “The State of First Nations Education in Canada.”
  16. See CBC, 8th Fire, “Profile of Shannen Koostachin,” www.cbc.ca/doczone/8thfire/2011/11/shannen-koostachin.html.

Chapter 2

  1. This book was published posthumously in English.
  2. Although influential for some time, Bowles and Gintis’s theory has since been criticized by several. Lingstone (1994), for example, highlights three major problems with the correspondence principle.
  3. See the National Head Start website for more information: www.nhsa.org/about_nhsa
  4. See the Healthy Families website for more information: www.publicsafety.gc.ca/res/cp/ev/hf-eng.aspx

Chapter 3

  1. See Digital Resources on Manitoba History: The Manitoba School Questions: 1890 to 1897, http://manitobia.ca/content/en
  2. The report was commissioned by Prime Minister John A. Macdonald to be written by Nicholas Flood Davin, a politician and writer. The report was called “Report on Industrial Schools for Indians and Half-Breeds.”
  3. The Report can be accessed here: http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/bibliography/3024.html
  4. The entire document can be accessed at www.ahf.ca/downloads/gathering-strength. pdf
  5. See the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada website, www.trc.ca/websites/trcinstitution/index.php?p=7
  6. See www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2009/04/29/pope-first-nations042909.html for an overview of the comments and reaction by Aboriginal leaders.
  7. The exact number is not known and there are various estimates ranging from 20 000 to 40 000. See McLaren (2004:1) for an overview of the estimated numbers.
  8. See Collections Canada, “What Was School Like?” www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/schoolhouse/008003-2200-e.html
  9. A useful summary of Chinese immigration history to Canada can be found at the Canadian Encyclopedia: www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm= TCE&Params=A1ARTA 0001588
  10. The school still exists today, but is used for Chinese cultural classes with students attending regular public school during the day and then the Chinese Public School lessons from 4 to 6 p.m. (or on Saturdays).
  11. Chinese Segregation, Victoria Daily Times, October 11, 1922. Quoted in Stanley (1990:293–294).
  12. See Internment of Japanese Canadians at the Canada History Project: www.canadahistoryproject.ca/1939-45/1939-45-08-internment. html
  13. Journals of the House of Assembly of Upper Canada, 1836, App. 35, pp. 57–60, cited by Houston (1972:255).
  14. Statistics Canada, The Daily, Monday July 28, 2008: www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/080728/dq080728b-eng.htm
  15. Quebec is absent from Figure 3.1 due to its unique differences from the educational systems found in other parts of the country, particularly up until the mid-1950s.

Chapter 4

  1. Bill 52, The Education Amendment Act, Learning to Age 18, 2006.
  2. See www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/REFORME/publications/Prog_form_primaire_a.htm
  3. See the Quebec Public CEGEP network www.cvcrhc.ca/portal/page/portal/pgr_org_ecq/qu_est_ce_qu_un_cegep
  4. See British Columbia Ministry of Education: www.bced.gov.bc.ca/schooling_options.htm
  5. See Alberta Education http://education.alberta.ca/parents/choice.aspx
  6. See Manitoba Education www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/schools/gts.html
  7. See Toronto District School Board www.tdsb.on.ca/programs/
  8. Council of Ministers of Education website, www.cmec.ca
  9. See “New Era in N.B.: Schools without Trustees,” Susan Kastner, Toronto Star, Sep 29, 1996, A1.
  10. See CBC News Online, “School Boards.” www.cbc.ca/news/background/education/school_boards.html
  11. See www.newswire.ca/en/releases/archive/September2007/20/c2967.html
  12. See www.cbc.ca/ontariovotes2007/features/features-faith.html
  13. www.tdsb.on.ca/aboutUs
  14. www.tdsb.on.ca/_site/viewitem.asp?siteid=122&menuid=490&pageid=379
  15. See the Association of Alberta Public Charter Schools, www.taapcs.ca/schools/
  16. See the Cree School Board, www.cscree.qc.ca/index.php/history
  17. See www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ai/mr/is/fct-edu-eng.asp
  18. See Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, Education in Canada, an Overview, www.cmec.ca/pages/canadawide.aspx
  19. .www.tcu.gov.on.ca/eng/postsecondary/schoolsprograms/puni/
  20. First Nations University of Canada website, www.firstnationsuniversity.ca/default.aspx?page=124

Chapter 5

  1. However celebrated Ryerson is for his forward thinking and dedication to educational matters in Canada, he also played a central role in the Residential Schools Act passed in the 1840s. This act, discussed in earlier chapters, removed Aboriginal children from their homes and families and placed them in boarding schools where they were to be educated and “assimilated” into White culture. The last residential school in Canada closed in 1996.
  2. Tomkins (2008) notes that the British progressive educators so heavily drawn upon by Canadian curriculum reformers actually borrowed heavily from American progressive educators. Thus, although the source may have seemed to have been British, the source was itself influenced by American ideas.
  3. For a list of challenged books over the last two decades, see www.freedomtoread.ca/censorship_in_canada/challenged_books. asp.
  4. See www.freedomtoread.ca/docs/challenged_books_and_magazines.pdf for further details.
  5. See www.freedomtoread.ca/docs/challenged_books_and_magazines.pdf for additional information.
  6. www.cna.ca/curriculum/db/TeacherResource-eng.asp?bc=Teacher%20Resource&pid=Teacher%20Resource
  7. www.healthyeatingpei.ca/toolkit-section6.php
  8. Information used to compile this table was taken from provincial jurisdiction websites and was current at the time of writing.
  9. www.cbc.ca/health/story/2010/09/01/quebec-coalition-sex-ed-inadequate.html
  10. http://education.alberta.ca/department/policy/legislation/regulations.aspx, Accessed November 29, 2010.
  11. www.fraserinstitute.org/report-cards/school-performance/overview.aspx
  12. CMEC Pan Canadian Assessment Program, www.cmec.ca/Programs/assessment/pancan/Pages/default.aspx
  13. Teaching to the test could be considered a larger problem American education system, where the national No Child Left Behind Act (2002) requires that all students be tested annually in Grades 3 to 8. The results are made public and schools that fail to make improvements in test scores are deemed to be “failing” (Volante 2004).
  14. See http://education.alberta.ca/media/929730/abor.pdf for details.
  15. See www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/abedu/framework/k-12_ab_lang.pdf for additional details.
  16. Manitoba Policy for Heritage Language Protection, www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/docs/policy/heritage/index.html
  17. See www.ednet.ns.ca/pdfdocs/curriculum/foundation-for-mikmaq-miigmao-language-curriculum.pdf for additional details.
  18. See interview with George Dei about Toronto’s Africentric School: www.magazine.utoronto.ca/leading-edge/afrocentric- schools/

Chapter 6

  1. www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/ Canada/20100224/winnipeg_teachers_100224/
  2. www.digitaljournal.com/article/290890
  3. www.barrheadleader.com/article/ 20110201/ BAR0801/302019984/-1/bar08/dunstable-students-earn-pizza-with-the-principal
  4. Winton (2007) is critical of this assimilationist approach, arguing that it does not encourage students to think about the possibility of social change. Instead of addressing social and economic conditions that contribute to conflict among groups in Canada, Winton argues that these curricula focus on avoiding conflict and accepting the status quo.
  5. http://news.sympatico.ca/oped/coffee-talk/ziploc_bag_debate_rages_after_quebec_ boy_is_excluded_at_school/857d0be6
  6. www.cbc.ca/canada/toronto/story/2007/04/ 13/ontario-complaint-safeschools.html
  7. www.cbc.ca/canada/windsor/story/2011/01/ 04/wdr-st-jospehs-duct-tape-suspension. html
  8. These booklets have been promoted in jurisdictions outside Ontario, including in Manitoba, Wales (UK), and Australia.
  9. Other suggestions include bringing male role models into the classroom to promote reading, using practical examples and activities to develop reading skills and habits, and splitting classes into single-sex groups for some subjects (Ontario Ministry of Education 2004, 2009).
  10. The discussion here focuses on verbal abuse by teachers. For a recent discussion of sexual abuse by teachers in Canada, see Moulden et al. 2010.
  11. In education research, the self-fulfilling prophecy is often called the Pygmalion Effect or the Rosenthal Effect. Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968/1992) discuss this effect in terms of how students were better rated by teachers when they were led to expect superior performance.
  12. Please see the study for details. It is debatable how generalizable the findings from the study are given the poor follow-up rate of the longitudinal study of home schooled children. The original 1994 study consisted of 2129 homeschooled children from 808 families.

Chapter 7

  1. See the CAGIS website for more details: http://publish.uwo.ca/~cagis/map.htm
  2. Statistics Canada, Cansim Table 202-0802.
  3. If common-law unions are taken into account (which are more numerous in Quebec), this figure will be closer to 30 percent (Ambert 2009).
  4. See OECD family database: www.oecd.org/els/social/family/database
  5. Statistics Canada, Cansim Table 202-0802.
  6. See Human Resources and Skills Development calculations based on Statistics Canada. Statistics Canada. Live births, mean age of mother, Canada, provinces and territories, annual (years) (CANSIM Table 102-4504). Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2011. www4.hrsdc.gc.ca/.3ndic.1t.4r@-eng. jsp?preview=1&iid=75
  7. www.cbe.ab.ca/schools/view.asp?id=182
  8. See Statistics Canada The Daily Wednesday, September 12, 2007. www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/070912/dq070912a-eng.htm
  9. The control group that did not receive the tutoring during the experiment did in fact receive tutoring the next year.
  10. See Statistics Canada: www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2009/permanent/10.asp
  11. The “visible” aspect is important in the definition provided by Statistics Canada because other minority groups can be identified by language group, for example, which is a characteristic that is not “visible.”
  12. See Citizenship and Immigration Canada, www.cic.gc.ca/english/immigrate/skilled/assess/index.asp
  13. See Citizenship and Immigration Canada, www.cic.gc.ca/english/information/applications/handc.asp
  14. United Nations, Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990), www.unicef.org/crc
  15. See details of this clause of the Education Act at www.edu.gov.on.ca/extra/eng/ppm/136.pdf
  16. See www.parentcentral.ca/parent/education/schoolsandresources/article/729817-a-voice-for-kids-too-afraid-to-go-to-school; http://toronto.ctv.ca/servlet/an/local/CTVNews/20060509/family_reunited060509?hub=TorontoHome
  17. Details of the policy can be found here: www.tdsb.on.ca/wwwdocuments/students/pathways_for_success/docs/70516%20summ.pdf
  18. Ogbu’s (1992) original theoretical considerations were oriented toward explaining the poor educational outcomes of African Americans in the United States.
  19. See http://oncampus.macleans.ca/education/2011/04/30/don%E2%80%99t-say-%E2% 80%98gsa%E2%80%99/comment-page-1
  20. “LGBTQ” stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and queer, with the “Q” being added to LGBT by some groups. “Queer” is a general term that refers to all those who do not identify as heterosexual or heteronormative.
  21. www.un.org/disabilities/convention/conventionfull.shtml
  22. www.cbc.ca/news/health/story/2010/08/02/nl-deaf-school-closing-802.html
  23. www.cad.ca/education.php
  24. See program website at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fniah-spnia/famil/develop/ahs-papa_ expansion-eng.php
  25. See the Pathways to Education website: www.pathwaystoeducation.ca/about.html

Chapter 8

  1. The OECD countries are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  2. The main difference between the executive and regular MBAs is that students in the former typically work full-time in business-related areas and do not want to interrupt their careers to pursue additional education.
  3. Quoted in Wald and Fang (2008).
  4. See Immigrating to Canada: Skilled Workers and Professionals: Who Can Apply.www. cic.gc.ca/english/immigrate/skilled/apply-who. asp
  5. www.cafce.ca/en/coop-defined
  6. http://cecs.uwaterloo.ca/about/
  7. See www.youth.gc.ca/eng/common/yes.shtml for more details on federal government programs that assist in student and new graduate employment.
  8. See Statistics Canada “Family Life—Young Adults Living with their Parent(s)” www4. hrsdc.gc.ca/.3ndic.1t.4r@-eng.jsp?iid=77#M_3
  9. See www.thestar.com/news/article/1006615–outlook-is-bleak-for-foster-kids-aging-out-of- the-system?bn=1
  10. See Government of Alberta, Youth in Transition initiative www.child.alberta.ca/home/539.cfm
  11. See Statistics Canada, The Daily, May 13, 2010 Study: Aboriginal Labour Market Update www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/100513/dq100513b-eng.htm
  12. While the discussion here focuses on the developed world, an excellent overview of transitions in developing countries is found in Cynthia B. Lloyd, Jere R. Behrman, Nelly P. Stromquist, and Barney Cohen, eds., (2006) The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries: Selected Studies, The National Academies Press.

Chapter 9

  1. See Ontario Ministry of Education, Results-Based Plan 2010/2011, www.edu. gov.on.ca/eng/about/annualreport/1011/index.html
  2. See http://oncampus.macleans.ca/education/2008/11/24/global-economic-crisis-takes-heavy-toll-on-canadian-universities
  3. See http://blogs.vancouversun.com/2010/05/07/school-district-business-companies-fading- to-red/
  4. www.aved.gov.bc.ca/publications/legislation.htm
  5. See www.cautbulletin.ca/en_article.asp?articleid=3382
  6. See www.ucalgary.ca/secretariat/node/627
  7. http://blogs.unb.ca/newsroom/2010/12/02/eleven-new-members-appointed-to-unb-board-of-governors/
  8. See also Schmidt, S., “UBC Rigs Class Size to Boost Rank: Documents,” National Post, January 31, 2004, for news coverage.
  9. See www.thecord.ca/articles/49753
  10. See www.mytrentu.ca/news/archives/2006/02/the_world_belon.shtml
  11. www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_ e/org6_e.htm
  12. See http://media.schulich.yorku.ca/featured/schulich-and-gmr-group-break-ground-on-new-india-campus/
  13. http://uae.uwaterloo.ca/about/hct.html
  14. See www.tec.ubc.ca/about_the_program/partnership.html for additional details.
  15. See www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/8843200/University-of-Wales-abolished-after-visa-scandal.html
  16. See the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, www.aucc.ca/policy-issues/global-connections/international-study/
  17. Kelly (2009) found in a Canadian study of that study abroad programs are largely framed as “an economically-centred experience that students can use to leverage a job” (p. 202) instead of an experience that will improve the individual’s global citizenship.
  18. See www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2011/mar/25/higher-education-universityfunding
  19. See www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/TopStories/20090921/dropout_university_090921/#ixzz1lLCDqgGI
  20. See also the Grade Inflation Task Force website at University of Lethbridge: http://people.uleth.ca/~runte/inflation/index. html
  21. See www.cbc.ca/news/story/2004/01/16/mcgill_turnitin030116.html
  22. See www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/story/2006/03/08/ns-msvu-plagiarism 20060308.html
  23. See www.thestar.com/news/canada/article/1048212—dalhousie-dumps-anti-plagiarism-software
  24. www.questu.ca/current_students/honour_constitution.php
  25. www.usask.ca/wcvm/undergrad_students/WCVM_Honour_Code.php
  26. See www.nationalpost.com/news/story.html?id=18a506fe-13c1-40dd-87c9-49d46100bdcb&k=21800


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