Chapter 5: Learning Sounds

This chapter illustrates how the phonological component of mental grammar develops in a language learner, whether in an infant learning their first language, or an adult learning a second, third, or later language. The chapter also explores what it means for a speaker to have an accent.

When you’ve completed this chapter, you will be able to:

  • identify the stages in babies’ development of phoneme categories in their L1,
  • predict whether a phonemic contrast will be easy or hard for an L2 learner to learn, depending on their L1,
  • understand the consequences of accent stigma for speakers and listeners,



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