As a generally noninvasive subset of neuroscience methods, psychophysiological methods are used across a variety of disciplines in order to answer diverse questions about psychology, both mental events and behavior. Many different techniques are classified as psychophysiological. Each technique has its strengths and weaknesses, and knowing them allows researchers to decide what each offers for a particular question. Additionally, this knowledge allows research consumers to evaluate the meaning of the results in a particular experiment.
Any research method in which the dependent variable is a physiological measure and the independent variable is behavioral or mental (such as memory).
A research method that deals with the structure or function of the nervous system and brain.
A procedure that involves the skin being broken or an instrument or chemical being introduced into a body cavity.
Abnormalities in the tissue of an organism usually caused by disease or trauma.
A procedure that does not require the insertion of an instrument or chemical through the skin or into a body cavity.
The oxygen-carrying portion of a red blood cell.
Hemoglobin carrying oxygen.
Hemoglobin not carrying oxygen.
The signal typically measured in fMRI that results from changes in the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin to deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood.
A term that refers to how small a unit of time can be measured; high temporal resolution means capable of resolving very small units of time; in neuroscience it describes how precisely in time a process can be measured in the brain.
A term that refers to how small the elements of an image are; high spatial resolution means the device or technique can resolve very small elements; in neuroscience it describes how small of a structure in the brain can be imaged.
The difference in electric charge between two points.
A particle having the same mass and numerically equal but positive charge as an electron.
A change in a cell’s membrane potential, making the inside of the cell more positive and increasing the chance of an action potential.
A change in a cell’s membrane potential, making the inside of the cell more negative and decreasing the chance of an action potential.
The ability of synapses and neural pathways to change over time and adapt to changes in neural process, behavior, or environment.
The part of the nervous system that is outside the brain and spinal cord.
One of the two major divisions of the autonomic nervous system, responsible for stimulation of “fight or flight” activities.
One of the two major divisions of the autonomic nervous system, responsible for stimulation of “rest and digest” activities.