Glossary

Accessibility

The quality of being easy to obtain or use, easily understood, or appreciated.

accountability

the act of being responsible for an action

Acknowledging

Acknowledging what a client has said to be their experience builds trust.

acrophobia

Fear of heights

Active listener

The act of listening carefully.

Active listening

To listen without distraction to what is being spoken. Confirm congruency between verbal and nonverbal communication.

Active listening cues

Use of nonverbal and verbal cues to encourage client/client's families to continue talking

Actively listening

To listen without distractions to what is being spoken. Confirm congruency between verbal and non verbal communication.

Adaptations

The act of changing to fit in.

Addiction

A solid need to habitually use or do something (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Adheres

To maintain loyalty (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Adversarial

Involves two opposing sides.

Adverse Effects

Something that can go wrong during a treatment that can affect an individual for the rest of their life.

Advocate

A person who will support and ask questions for those in a position that are unable to.

Affiliate

Association such as a member/ To contribute to group working conditions (Merriam Webster, n.d).

agile

Ability to move quickly and easily (Merriam Webster, n.d).

agoraphobia

Anxiety about being in places or situations where escape might not be possible (Stangor. C., & Walinga. J., 2014).

alarm phase

First phase in Hans Seyle's General Adaptation Syndrome. The fight-or flight response is activated (Pelz. B, & Herkimer County Community College, n.d.). To learn more about Hans Seyle's General Adaptation Syndrome model please follow this link.

Alignment

The state of being agreed and matched with something or someone (Merriam Webster, n.d).

alteration

change or adjustment

alternate

taking the place of the current

Ambiguity

A word that can be described in more than two ways (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Anticipatory grief

Is a reaction to an upcoming, impending, or expected loss event.

Anxiety

Excessive worry, nervousness, or fear even when the stressors are removed. To learn more about the impact to Canadians click this link.

anxiety disorders

Psychological disturbances that include irrational fears of what most would perceive as everyday situations and objects (Stangor. C, & Walinga. J., 2014).

appreciative

showing gratitude

Arachnophobia

Fear of spiders

Arguing

A disagreement between two or more people that may become escalated (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Astraphobia

Fear of thundering and lightning

Attentively

The act of being observant.

attitudes

Immediate disposition towards a concept or object.

Audibly

Can be heard.

Authority

The power an individual has to give orders and make rules.

Autonomy

An individual acting differently and separating from others (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Avert

To avoid (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Avoid.

A system in which people are placed in a series of levels with different importance.

Bargaining

Negotiating, agreement, or contract (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Barrier

Something that could be mental or physical that prevents you from progressing.

Behaviours

The way a person act (Merriam Webster, n.d).

beliefs

Ideas based on your previous experiences and convictions that often serve as a frame of reference for viewing the world

Bereaved

Someone who is afflicted by the death of a loved one (Merriam Webster, n.d).

bias

An inclination towards a certain point of view without consideration for other points of view.

boundaries

a limit of activity

Breach

Break, violate.

Business Goods

Tangible items manufactured by businesses (Wade,  2020).

caveat

A caution, warning, qualification, or forewarning

Character

Features that describe an individual.

Check In

The registration at the health provider's office.

Circle of Care:

The group of healthcare providers treating a patient who share information to provide that care.

Circumstances

Something happening where nobody has control of it.

Cisgender

Is an adjective that describes a person whose gender identity aligns with the sex they were assigned at birth.

Cisgender and transgender

Have their origins in Latin- derived prefixes of "cis" and "trans" - cis, meaning "on this side of" and trans, meaning "across from" or "on the other side of." Both adjectives are used to describe experiences of someone's gender identity.

Clarification

To understand an idea.

Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning is a learning process in which coupling stimuli produces a response (Fields, T., 2020)

Claustrophobia

Fear of closed spaces

client

A term used in health care in place of customer

Clientele

Customers/ clients.

closed question

Closed questions can be answered simply and do not require further reflection or clarification.

Cochlear implants

Electronic prostheses are used to aid in hearing. Has an external microphone and one or more electrodes placed into the cochlea (Merriam Webster, n.d).

cognitive

thinking, reasoning, knowing, remembering, and problem-solving abilities

Cognitive Development Theory

Jean Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory proposed that people develop their thinking by comparing new experiences to what they already know. This theory proposed that cognitive development follows a sequence.

Collaborative

To work together to achieve a common goal.

comorbidities

two or more diseases present in a patient

comorbidity

Suffering from two or more disorders at the same time.

compassion

A deep awareness of the suffering of another with a desire to alleviate that suffering.

compassionate

showing concern for others

competence

Possession of sufficient knowledge and/or skill level in a specific discipline

Competency

Having acquired sufficient knowledge for their scope of practice.

Competent

The knowledge one should have in their scope of practice.

Compliance

The act of fulfilling requirements (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Components

To contribute to a larger whole in your scope of practice.

Composition

The make-up of the team who is involved.

Comprehensive

Having vast knowledge on a topic or to cover completely.

compulsions 

repetitive behaviours

Concrete Operations Stage

This is a stage in Jean Piaget's theory where a child can comprehend other people's viewpoints (DeWolfe, T.E., 2019).

Conducive

The act of being more flexible for a client.

conduits

a way to transmit or distribute something

Confidentiality

The state of keeping or being kept secret or private.

congruency

matched

congruent

Verbal and nonverbal communication are matched.

constructively

in a way for a beneficial purpose

context

interrelated conditions in which something occurs or exists

Controlled Acts

May only be performed by authorized regulated health professionals (CPSO, 2021).

controlled acts.

May only be performed by authorized regulated health professionals (CPSO, 2021)

Conventional

Something that is usual and/or common (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Conversely

Opposite way of looking at something

Courteous

Pleasant and kind communication with respect for others.

custodian

a person who has a responsibility

Cynophobia

fear of dogs

Decipher

Interpret or decode a message sent to the receiver (Merriam Webster, n.d).

decoded

Interpreting the message for themselves and turning that communication into thoughts (Grimes, Roch & Simon, 2018)

Decoded/Decoding

Interpreting the message for themselves and turning that communication into thoughts.

despair 

complete loss of hope

Device

Equipment that serves a specific function (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Dialect

A  language distinguished by vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation using other regional types and creating a single language (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Dictation

To understand words that are being used.

disbelief 

inability to accept something is real or true

disciplines

subject area or field of study

Disclosed

To expose or make public (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Discrepancies

A variance or disagreement.

disingenuous

fake or insincere

Disrespectful

The act of being rude and going against the rules.

distress

When the level of stress is no longer helpful and becomes overwhelming and debilitating (Pelz. B, & Herkimer County Community College, n.d.).

Domain

The area in which one's scope of practice resides.

Domineeringly

Taking control over other individuals.

Dysthymia

Mild form of depression

Elder

An identified and respected member of an Aboriginal community. Elders have ley information about their community and are often sought for guidance and support. Often they may be called 'aunty' or 'uncle' as a sign of respect, even if they are not related.

Elders

is an identified and respected member of an Aboriginal community. Elders have ley information about their community and are often sought for guidance and support. Often they may be called 'aunty' or 'uncle' as a sign of respect, even if they are not related.

Emotional Safety

A feeling that your innermost thoughts, feelings and experience are, and will be, honoured as one honour themselves.

Empathic

The act of being understanding.

Empathy

Awareness of how someone is experiencing or feeling an emotional event because you have felt the same or similar emotion.

encoding

Determines how a message will be received by the intended receiver/audience and develops the message and makes adjustments accordingly (Grimes, Roch & Simon, 2018)

Encompassing

Everyone in the circle of care has complete knowledge of the situation at hand.

encounter

A client visit or appointment with a provider

Enunciate

To pronounce words clearly so they are understandable.

Environment

The place you are surrounded by.

Equality

The quality of having the same rights.

Ethics

A set of rules.

eustress

Stress for a short duration considered good stress eu/stress.

Event

Something happening.

exacerbation

Increase in severity

example

A sample

exhaustion phase

The third and final phase of Hans Seyle's General Adaptation Syndrome model. The body is no longer able to adapt and sustained levels of Cortisol takes it tole on the body (Pelz. B, & Herkimer County Community College, n.d.). To learn more about Hans Seyle's General Adaptation Syndrome model please follow this link.

Expert

Someone who has obtained mastery or experience through education or life experience.

expressed consent

The client has signed a formal consent giving permission.

Fidgety

Inclined to easily upset (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

fight-or-flight response

The activation of both sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system in response to a real or perceived threat. Blood flow goes to essential organs allowing the body to either fight the threat or flee from the threat (Pelz. B, & Herkimer County Community College, n.d.). To learn more please follow this link.

Flight-or-fight response

The activation of both sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system in response to a real or perceived threat. Blood flow goes to essential organs allowing the body to either fight the threat or flee from the threat (Pelz. B, & Herkimer County Community College, n.d.).

Fluent

The act of mastering an idea and being comfortable with it.

Formal Operations Stage

This is a stage in Jean Piaget's theory where abstract ideas and concepts like justice can be understood even if not directly experienced (DeWolfe, T.E., 2019)

Gender

Is often defined as a social construct of norms, behaviours and roles that vary between societies and over time. Gender is often categorized as male, female or nonbinary. An adjective that can describe a person who does not identify as any gender.

Gender dysphoria

Refers to psychological distress that results from an incongruence between one's sex assigned at birth and one's gender identity. Not all trans people experience dysphoria, and those who do may experience it at varying levels of intensity. A diagnosis is listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Some argue that such a diagnosis inappropriately pathologizes gender incongruence, while others contend that a diagnosis makes it easier for transgender people to access necessary medical treatment.

Gender expression

How a person presents gender outwardly, through behaviour, clothing, voice or other perceived characteristics. Society identifies these cues as masculine or feminine, although what is considered masculine or feminine changes over time and varies by culture.

Gender identity

One's own internal sense of self and their gender, whether that is man, woman, neither or both. Unlike gender expression, gender identity is not outwardly visible to others.

Gender transition

A process a person may take to bring themselves and/or their bodies into alignment with their gender identity. It's not just one step. Transitioning can include any, none or all of the following: telling one's friends, family and co-workers; changing one's name and pronouns; updating legal documents; medical interventions such as hormone therapy; or surgical intervention, often called gender confirmation surgery.

Gender-expansive

An adjective that can describe someone with a more flexible gender identity than might be associated with a typical gender binary.

General Adaptation Syndrome

Hans Selye created this term to refer to the three phases in which the mind and body change in response to long-term stress. To learn more please follow this link.

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

Hans Selye created this term to refer to the three phases in which the mind and body change in response to long-term stress.

general lead

Questions used to propel or guide the conversation forward

General Leads

Questions used to propel or guide the conversation forward

Gentle touch

Used to console a person, placing one hand softly onto another's shoulder.

Genuine

The act of being real, truthful and sincere.

Gestures

A movement of the body that emphasizes an idea (Merriam Webster, n.d).

goods

Tangible items manufactured by business (Wade, 2020).

Gossip

Rumours about other individuals.

governing

having authority to conduct the policy

Graciousness

The act of being kind and polite.

Grief

Is both a feeling and a process that people typically go through after a death or other significant loss.

Harmonious

Everyone involved in reaching an agreement.

Hazards

Are potential risks of danger (Merriam Webster, n.d).

HCA

Health Care Administrators. May also be known as Health Office administrators, Medical Office Administrators, Health Services Administrators and more.

Helping interview

An interview with a person seeking help and the people providing that help.

Hierarchy

A system in which people are placed by levels with different importance (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Holiest

Something that has a divine quality (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Homelessness

Not having a place to live (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

hospice

care focusing on the quality of life for people and their caregivers who are experiencing an advanced, life-limiting illness.

Impairment

Regression or loss of mobility (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Impartial

The act of not being biased and treating everyone and everything equally.

Implementation

To enact or start something such as a rule.

incongruency

Verbal and nonverbal communication does not match

incongruent

mismatched

Indirect statements

Open-ended questions rephrased into a statement that indicates expansion or further information is required.

inherent

existing as something of an essential characteristic

innate

inherent or born with

innovation

New idea, method, or product (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Insufficient

Not being enough.

interaction model

Process in which participants alternate roles of sender and receiver and incorporate feedback.

Interaction Model of Communication

A process in which participants alternate roles of sender and receiver by incorporating feedback to communication in an interactive way.

Interactions

The involvement with another individual.

interchangeable

similar meaning

interdependent

dependent on each other

interdisciplinary

more than one branch of knowledge

interpersonal communication

Exchange of messages between two or more people (Grimes, Roch, & SImon, 2018)

Interpreter

A person who interprets, especially one who translates speech orally (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Interprofessional

More than one branch of knowledge.

Interprofessional communication

Communication taking place between health care professionals with clients/patients, families, and the community in general.

Intersex

An umbrella term used to describe people with differences in reproductive anatomy, chromosomes or hormones that don't fit typical definitions of male and female. Intersex can refer to a number of natural variations, some of them laid out by InterAct. Being intersex is not the same as being nonbinary or transgender, which are terms typically related to gender identity.

Interwoven

To mix or blend knowledge in relation to a person's circle of care.

intimacy

close familiarity

invalidate

To view the person's issues as if there is no merit or foundation.

judged

A formed negative opinion

Judgement

To make considered decisions or come to conclusions about another based on past experience, stereotyping or prejudice.

Judgment

To make considered decisions or come to conclusions about another based on past experience, stereotyping or prejudice.

legitimized

viewed as valid

Limitations

Due to varying impeding factors one person may not be able to do the same things as someone else.

Major depressive disorder

Clinical depression is a severe form of depression as it limits the person's day-to-day activities

Making Observations

Observe a clients demeanour or behaviour to assist you to open up the conversation for the client tot tell you more.

Mannerisms

A specific style that an individual should act and speak.

message

content to be delivered and interpreted.

Methods

Process or steps taken to achieve an objective (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Migration (migrated)

Moving from one location to another.

Mirrored

Adjective of something that gives an accurate representation (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Misperceptions

Inaccurate or false information (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Misuse

Incorrect use of something (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Mood disorders

Lowering of a person's mood

mourn

to feel or show deep sorrow or regret

Multidisciplinary

Combining or involving more than one professional area of practice (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Multigenerational

Being related to multiple generations.

Mysophobia

Fear of germs or dirt

neurosurgery

Surgery of the nervous system

non-verbal

body language such as wave, eye-contact and mouthing words.

Nonbinary

A term that can be used by people who do not describe themselves or their genders as fitting into the categories of man or woman. A range of terms are used to refer to these experiences; nonbinary and genderqueer are among the terms that are sometimes used.

nonverbal

Body language such as wave, eye-contact, and mouthing words. nonverbal communication is observed by watching another person's body language such as facial expressions eye contact, gestures, and movements.

nonverbal communication

Body language such as wave, eye-contact, and mouthing words. nonverbal communication is observed by watching another person's body language such as facial expressions eye contact, gestures, and movements.

objective

Signs and symptoms that can be seen, heard, felt, or measured

obsessions 

repetitive thoughts

OCD

Obsessive compulsive disorder

Open-ended question

A questioning technique that requires expansion or further clarification.

open-ended questions

A questioning technique that requires expansion or further clarification

Ophidiophobia

Fear of snakes

Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication

Osgood-Schramm model of communication, one person encodes a message that is received and interpreted, then the receiver encodes a message to respond and sends that feedback back to the first person, who then interprets and may choose to respond and then ask a question to continue the conversation (Smith, 2019)

Outburst

Stern expression of a feeling (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

overarching 

comprehensive; all embracing

pagmamano

A younger person asking for an elder's hand and gently touching their own forehead with it while bowing.

Panic Attack

An unexpected sudden surge of fear with physical symptoms.

panic disorder

A series of unexpected panic attacks that becomes debilitating.

Panic disorders

A series of unexpected panic attacks that becomes debilitating.

Paraphrasing

Repeating what the client has said for confirmation. This must be used sparingly as not to come across as patronizing.

Perceive

The act of being aware of something.

PHI

Personal health information.

philosophies

a system of thought

phobia

Fear of something specific such as an object, activity, or situation.

positionality

The position that your race, gender, sexuality, and ability position your identity in society (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A psychological condition occurring when a person experienced a highly stressful situation (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Powerless

Lacking the capacity to act (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

preventive

able to be avoided

Pride

A  feeling that you deserve to be respected (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Primary

main care provider

Privacy

The state of being free from public attention.

probing question

An exploratory question that seeks to gain more information.

Proficiency

Advancement in any knowledge (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

prolonged

continuing for a long or longer period of time

Pteromerhanophobia

Fear of flying

quality of life

General level of human happiness based on factors like life expectancy, educational standards, health , sanitation, and leisure time (Wade, 2020)

Rapport

A relationship that is harmonious (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Rationale

Explanation of controlling principles, such as practice, belief, opinion, or phenomena (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Reaction

A response to words and actions.

Reasoning

To apply reasoning techniques to situations of distress.

receiver

The person responsible for decoding the message.

Reliability

The act of dependency you have on an individual.

Reliance

A thing or person someone might rely on for assistance.

Reluctance

State of feeling aversion (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

remission

A period of time when there is relief from symptoms.

resistance phase

The second phase of Hans Seyle's General Adaptation Syndrome model. The body remains on alert but the initial jolt is gone (Pelz. B, & Herkimer County Community College, n.d.). To learn more about Hans Seyle's General Adaptation Syndrome model please follow this link.

Restrained

Not excessive (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

rituals

ceremony consisting of several ordered steps

scope of practice

Work within the limits of what you have been educated or trained to do.

Secondary

coming after main care

self awareness

Examination of a person's own behaviours and perspective of themselves.

Self-aware (self-awareness)

A person being aware of their own individuality or personality.

sender

The person responsible for developing and sending the message

Sensitive

Aware of the feelings and attitudes of those around you.

sequential

following a logical order

services

Intangible offerings by business that can't be touched, stored or held (Wade, 2020).

Severe

Very bad/ serious.

Sex

Refers to a person's biological status and is typically assigned at birth, usually on the basis of external anatomy. Sex is typically categorized as male, female or intersex.

Sexual orientation

Refers to the enduring physical, romantic and/or emotional attraction to members of the same and/or other genders, including lesbian, gay, bisexual and straight orientations.

Shame

A feeling of humiliation.

Shock

State of being severely disturbed.

Silence

Deliberately silent to give people involved in the conversation time to reflect and process what could be said next.

SOAP note

A common method for documenting a client encounter. To learn more follow this link to the CPSO: Medical Records Documentationhttps://www.cpso.on.ca/Physicians/Policies-Guidance/Policies/Medical-Records-Documentation/Advice-to-the-Profession-Medical-Records-Documenta

Social Determinants of Health

Social determinants like income and social status that effect the health outcomes for people.

Social phobia

Fear of social situations

spirit

the non-physical part of a person their emotions and character; the soul

Spontaneity

The state of being spontaneous (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Squinting

Straining one's eyes in order to try and see something clearly.

standards of care

a duty determined by set of circumstances relevant to a particular patient at a given time

stimuli

An agent that produces a response

stress

Researchers vary on their definition of stress but it is generally thought to be the response to a stimulus (stressor) or response to a perception of a stressor (Pelz. B, & Herkimer County Community College, n.d.). The stressor being something an individual determines is overwhelming or a potential threat to their wellbeing (Pelz.B, & Herkimer County Community College, n.d.). For an in depth look at stress as a concept follow this link.

Stressor

Being something an individual determines is overwhelming or a potential threat to their wellbeing (Pelz.B, & Herkimer County Community College, n.d.).

stressors

The stressor being something an individual determines is overwhelming or a potential threat to their wellbeing (Pelz.B, & Herkimer County Community College, n.d.)

subjective

Signs and symptoms reported that can not be seen, heard, felt, or measured.

Subtle

Something that is hard to notice (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

supplication

humility

Survivor

To continue to function after a traumatic experience. 

Sympathetic system

The part of the nervous system that prepares the body to react to situations of stress or alarm (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Sympathy

Feelings of care or feeling sorry about someone else's sadness.

Systemic

Integral to a predominant economic, political practice, or social.

Temporary

For short periods of time (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Tendencies

An individual’s thoughts and actions (Merriam Webster, n.d)..

Tertiary

Third order or level

Therapeutic Communication

Relates to treatments that are curative and benefit mind and body (Merriam Webster, n.d).

third-party insurance plans

Insurance plans which are covered by private companies such as Manulife, Sunlife, and Equitable Insurance companies. People have this type of coverage through extended health care plans offered by employers or purchased by the client.

tone

Pitch of voice that expresses a mood or emotion (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Touch

Communicates concern, compassion or comfort. A light touch to the hand, arm, or shoulder. Acute awareness to the clients reception. If the client recoils do not touch them.

Transgender

An adjective used to describe someone whose gender identity differs from the sex assigned at birth. A transgender man, for example, is someone who was listed as female at birth but whose gender identity is male.

transmission model

Is a linear, one-way process with focus on the sender and the message to be communicated.

Transmission Model of Communication

A linear, one-way process in which the focus is on the sender and the message to be communicated to the receiver.

transparency

Open and direction approach (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Trauma

Pertains to a deeply distressing or disturbing experience. A psychological or physical injury (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Trauma-informed

The act of recognizing trauma within individuals.

Traumatic

The act of being emotionally stressed to the point where it can affect an individual mentally and emotionally. 

Trembling

Shaking involuntarily (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

triaged

Client appointments are prioritized based on urgency of their health concern.

Trigger

Something that causes the appearance of something else (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Triggers

Something that causes an individual to have trauma. 

Troublesome

Being difficult.

Trust

Someone who is honest, good, and reliable.

trypanophobia

Fear of injections

Unbiased

Not being fair.

Uncertainties

Uncertain things (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Utilize

To use/ take advantage of.

Utilized

A device that can be used for practical assistance or someone a client can ask questions of.

values

Core concepts and ideas that you categorize as good or bad, right or wrong or what might be worth making a sacrifice for.

verbal

spoken words

Verbal interaction

The words individuals use to get a message across.

verbal/oral communication

A type of communication where the message is expressed through spoken words using pitch, pace, and volume to convey a message.

Well-being

Being happy and healthy (Merriam Webster, n.d).

Whispering

Soft speech to avoid being overheard (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Why Questions

Questions that require explanation

Wisdom

The knowledge that is gained by experiences in life (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

Worthy

Having value (Merriam-Webster, n.d).

written

text, keyed or written words

written communication

A type of communication where the message is communicated with written words, text, symbols, and images.

Zoophobia

Fear of small animals

License

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Therapeutic Communication for Health Care Administrators by Kimberlee Carter; Marie Rutherford; and Connie Stevens is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book