Evaluating Resources

Learning Outcomes:

After completing this chapter you will be able to:

  1. identify key components to evaluating information,
  2. apply tools such as “CRAAP” “FACTS,” “RADAR,” and/or “SIFT” to evaluate information.


This chapter will outline some key concepts to consider when analyzing internet sources. This knowledge will help you do better research for assignments and in daily life.

The importance of evaluating sources:

Check your understanding:

Consider the source:

Check your understanding:

Motivation & Bias:

Check your understanding:

Check the evidence:

Check your understanding:


Check your understanding:


Check your understanding:


FACTS is an alternative evaluation tool to CRAAP and RADAR:

Check your understanding:

Each of the above evaluation tools have similar criteria with slightly different nuances. Choose whichever acronym you find easiest to remember!

What makes news “fake”?

Check your understanding:

The SIFT Method:

Check your understanding:

Conclusion: be a skeptic!

Check your understanding:

Questions & credits:


Blakeslee, S. (2010). Evaluating information–Applying the CRAAP test. Retrieved fromĀ http://www.csuchico.edu/lins/handouts/eval_websites.pdf

Caulfield, M. (2017). Web literacy for student fact-checkers. Pressbooks Directory. Retrieved June 2, 2021 from https://webliteracy.pressbooks.com/

International Federation of Library Associations. (2017). How to spot fake news. Retrieved from https://www.ifla.org/publications/node/11174

Mandalios, J. (2013). RADAR: An approach for helping students evaluate internet sources. Journal of Information Science, 39(4), 470-478. doi:10.1177/0165551513478889

Further Questions?

Email library@niagaracollege.ca.

Updated March 23, 2022 to include “FACTS.”


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Niagara College Libraries + Learning Commons Information Skills Online Handbook Copyright © 2020 by Jackie Chambers Page and Siscoe Boschman is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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