Co-operation outcomes: Terminology and conceptualizations are varied; Broadly refers to what is produced, as well as the effects on those directly involved in the partnership; Influence by employment of resources available as wee as the effectiveness of the process; Can include objective, subjective, and learning outcomes
A final aspect of conceptualizing collaboration entails the consequences from the collaborative process.  Terminology and conceptualization by scholars in this regard varies considerably. The term outcome is often used in this regard. Sargent and Water (2004) for example, identify three categories of outcomes: objective outcomes, subjective outcomes, and learning outcomes. Other scholars (e.g., Plummer et al., 2017) have differentiated outcomes into results (tangible and intangible) and effects. Broadly, outcomes from collaboration refers to “what is produced as well as the effects on those directly involved, or the resulting changes or impacts from the collaboration” (Plummer et al., 2020; 2021).


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Building Sustainable Communities: Collaboration by Ryan Plummer; Amanda Smits; Samantha Witkowski; Bridget McGlynn; Derek Armitage; Ella-Kari Muhl; and Jodi Johnston is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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