8.1. Describe the general organization of the neurons within and outside of the central nervous system;
8.2. Summarize evolution of key brain features among animals; and,
8.3. Explain how olfactory, gustatory, equilibrium, auditory, and visual sensations are interpreted by animals with reference to signal processing and/or specific ion movements.
The content of this chapter was adapted from the Concepts of Biology-1st Canadian Edition open textbook by Charles Molnar and Jane Gair and Anatomy and Physiology open textbook.