6 Letters and Email

harman sidhu; Nista Rai; and Gurpreert Kaur

Image by rawpixel from Pixabay

Letters, email, and memorandums

Chapter Objectives

  • Write professional letters and emails in a business context
  • Identify elements of a formal business letter
  • Identify elements of a formal email
  • Write persuasively for specific audiences and specific purposes
  • Identify elements of a memorandum


A letter is a written message from one person to another regarding some common concern and matter. Letters and emails include a variety of types, such as formal letter and informal letters. It also contributes to the protection and conservation of literacy. Email is a very flexible medium and can be used for a variety of purposes. Email is considered as a tool which supports the human brain as many of us faces challenges to retrieve about work-related activities which we are doing on a daily basis. It is basically seen as the medium of communication, for example, send and receive messages. It is more used in formal purposes than informal. Business letters, letter of request, emails and memorandum are described in this chapter.

Business Letters

Business letters are written messages to a person or group within a professional setting. Business letters are used when the writer would like to be formal and professional. Letters may vary in length depending on the writer’s objective, purpose, and message of the letter. The letter can address anyone including, but not limited to: clients and customers, managers, agencies, suppliers, and other business personnel or organizations. A business letter is a legal document between the interested parties. These documents can be held for up to seven years, so it is important that all information is honest and legitimate.

What is Business letter used for?

Business letters are used for securing, promoting and maintaining a business without complications. A business letter should be filed on the basis of their subject matter in a chronological sequence. A business letter is used to maintain the correct information of the organization in the perception of the receiver. Also, it can be used as legal documents in disputes. Moreover is promotes goodwill and broadens the image of the organization.

Purpose of Business Letter

The purpose of a business letter is to convey information regarding business activities to customers, suppliers, debtors, government authorities, financial institutions, bank, and insurance companies and to other related parties with the business. A concluding transaction is also the specific purpose of the business letter. It is used in the creation of Demand and Goodwill. Throughout, goodwill messages and through circular letters existing market can be expanded. Another important purpose of a business letter is that it helps to establish a mutual relationship with the customers, suppliers and the other interested parties. Business letters are also used to maintain documentary evidence, as it can be preserved for future reference. Through business letters, firms can inquire regarding necessary matters. Moreover, for both trading and manufacturing concerns need to place orders for finished goods or raw materials to run the business. And, Business letters play a vital role in solving misunderstandings as well.

When would someone need to use Business Letter?

The Business letter can be used by someone when the sale or order the goods to the other parties for trading and maintain business through proper documentation. A business letter is also written to complain, in response to a claim or complaint adjustment letter are sent. Business letters are also used by someone for an inquiry to ask a question or elicit information from the recipient. For follow up, acknowledgment, recommendation and also for resignation business letters are used.

Elements of Business Letter

Elements of Business Letter are the heading, the date, the inside address, the salutation, the body, the complimentary close, and an additional notation section often follows the close. It should be clear in the purpose of communication, whether it is to inform, invite, emphasize, reminder, etc. Lack of clarity affects the intended purpose of the letter. It should create the necessary impact by proper positioning, placing them in an important position by repetition. It should provide relevant information such as facts, figures, illustrations, which are accurate and reliable as well as relevant to the context of the communication. Simplicity refers to the ease of understanding. Therefore, a letter written in a simple, easy, informal style using easily understood words catches the attention and makes an impact. So, a letter should contain simplicity. A business letter should have proper timing. Some messages have a sense of urgency. They call for action, which is ‘immediate’ or ‘urgent’, or within a given time frame. Letters which carry such messages should reflect the associated urgency. Moreover, the language used in a business letter should be appropriate.

Structure of Business Letter

The structure of Business letter has the following components:-

  1. Writer’s Address- The writer’s address appears first on the page if letterhead is used the address will already on the page. And, it may be centered, left justified, or right justified. If letterhead is not used, the address should be written on along the left margin.
  1. Date- The Date should be written with the month, the day and the year should follow in numerals.
  1. Reader’s Address- The readers’ address should begin with the reader’s name and title with the reader’s complete mailing address.
  1. Subject Line- A subject line is especially useful while writing a job cover letter in response to a particular job competition number. It is also useful for when writing to someone who has more than one role in the project and to draw the reader’s attention to a specific topic.
  1. Salutation- A salutation is to greet the addressee. It is the complementary greeting with which the writer begins his letter. Here examples of salutation:- Dear Professor Rai, Dear Mr. Rai
  1. A body of the Letter- It is the part of the letter which contains the message to be converged. It usually consists of three to four paragraphs.
  1. Complimentary Closing- There is no rule that dictates which closing should be used in which circumstances. Here are some closings (e.g. Regards, Respectfully, Thank you, Yours Sincerely, etc).
  1. Enclosures- Enclosure mentions the documents which are enclosed or attached to the letter. The enclosures usually find their place at the bottom left margin.

Examples of Business Letters

Example 1: A sample of General Business Letter


July 20, 20xx


Sender’s Address

GP & Associates

2053 SW Channing Avenue, Suite 400

Denver, CO 80016


Inside Address

Ms. Tia Turfingeon


3400 Onsite Parkway

Denver, CO 80016



Dear Ms. Turfingeon,

Body Text: I understand from our mutual acquaintance, Chad Johnson, that you are looking to retain an accountant to assist you in the sale of your business. I would welcome the opportunity to show you how GP & Associates was able to help Chad successfully sell his business earlier this year.

As you’ll see on our website, my associates and I have extensive experience in financial accounting, internal audits, and tax compliance. For the past several years, we have specialized in business evaluation and transition services for sellers. We enjoy working closely with clients throughout the sale process to ensure a smooth transition. As our clients can attest, our various pre-sale price improvement strategies can significantly optimize a business’s sale price.

Should you be thinking of purchasing another business, please note that we also offer business acquisition services. For your convenience, I have enclosed additional information describing GP & Associates full range of services.

Call to action: To set up an appointment to discuss your specific needs, please contact me at 303-449-0037. I know how busy you are, so I will give you a call on Tuesday to follow up if I haven’t heard from you.

Best Regards,

Signature Block

Greg Parker



Example 2: A sample of Business Letter Format after an Initial Meeting

Name of Company

Address of Company

City, State Zip Code




Name of Representative

Title of Representative

Name of Company

Address of Company

City, State Zip Code


Dear Name of Representative:

It was a pleasure meeting you at the Career Fair last week. As we discussed, I sincerely believe that the innovation of (item) produced and sold by Company Name can greatly streamline the (type of) process. I would like to bring some of the individuals from my team along to meet with you at Company Name. We would like to give you an overview of our features and discuss with you the best plan to work together on a project.

Meeting in person would allow us to fully evaluate wants and needs for future partnership. The team is available to meet any time over the next three weeks. Please let me know when you would be available, at your earliest convenience.



Your signature if not emailing


Your Name

Your Title

Telephone Number

Email address

Example 3: Business Letter Format about Ending a Partnership

Name of Company

Address of Company

City, State Zip Code




Name of Representative

Title of Representative

Name of Company

Address of Company

City, State Zip Code


Dear Name of Representative,

Working with Company Name for the past few years has been a fantastic experience. Unfortunately, Your Organization Name no longer has the need for your services. We have decided to change our company’s direction, and our decision requires changing our company infrastructure and with that said the decision to keep all of our current vendors to a minimum, removes the working relationship with many organizations such as yours.

A sincere thank you for all the excellent work your organization has done for us. I hope to remain on good terms with Company Name, and if we require services similar to what you have provided in the past, we will certainly consider you again without hesitation.

Warm regards,


Your signature if not emailing


Your Name

Your Title

Telephone Number

Email address


Free Bcom Notes. (2015). Business Letter: Meaning, Purpose, Stages, and Essentials. Retrieved from: https://freebcomnotes.blogspot.com/2016/11/business-letter-meaning-purpose-stages.html

Functions of Business Letters, Retrieved from https://www.communicationtheory.org/functions-of-a-business-letter/

Hearst Newspapers. (2019). 10 Types of Business Letters, Retrieved from https://work.chron.com/10-types-business-letters-9438.html

Colorado State University, (1993 – 2019). Elements of Business Letter, Retrieved from https://writing.colostate.edu/guides/page.cfm?pageid=1473&guideid=72

Xerox. (2019). Writing an Effective Business Letter, Retrieved from https://www.xerox.com/en-us/small-business/tips/business-letter

Business Letter Example, PDF. Retrieved from: https://www.cpp.edu/~career/team/Business%20Letter%20Example.pdf


Letters of Request

A letter of request is a letter in which one person who appeals for any investigation requests to the admin to reply on it. This is also written for when a person does humble request and write in a polite way for any clear and specific information, need any kind of permission and favor for any kind of matter.

Purpose of a Letter of Request

The letter of request is written for many purposes like these purpose are related to that when a person organize a meeting, the person needs the holidays, these letters also were written for the banking purpose and the main purpose of written the letter of request is related to the job.

Use of Letter of Request

The letter of request can be used to request for reference and for the job interview and it is also used for the information and you need a third party who can write the letter on behalf of you. Mostly the letter of request used for the request of the business proposal.

Letter of request mostly written in the formal style, so we complete this letter with full details of the recipient and also yourself. There are many types of letter of request like invitation letters, vacation letters, payment request letters, cover letter and so on.

Elements of the Letter of Request

  • Use the formal language and also the letter should be with the full of respect.
  • Provide all the details about the thing which you are requesting in the letter and tell the reason why you are requesting.
  • Maintain the proper structure of the letter and not do any grammatical error in the letter of request.
  • The first paragraph states that what is the purpose of the letter and in the second paragraph explain the reason and suggestions related to the purpose of the letter.

Structure/ format of the Letter of Request

  1. Date- A person should provide the date that day the person should want to submit the letter to the receiver. The date should be placed on the right side of the letter at the top.
  2. Inside address- after the date, a person should write the full name and full address of the receiver and if a receiver has any rank than give him/her rank with the name of the receiver.
  3. Greeting- a person should start his/her letter of request with the introduction like ‘respected sir or madam’ and also give them other introduction according to the receiver of the letter like ‘dear Mr…’, ‘good morning’ and so on.
  4. Body- the body is the main part of the letter. In the body, a person should request to the receiver about his/ her need. For example- a worker should request for the vacation to the manager. But in this part, a person should write only the straight to the points. Long wording may be frustrating the receiver.
  5. Complimentary close- after writing the body part, a person will close the letter with the phrase which should be mostly of one to two words. There are lots of examples of common phrases like- ‘best wishes’, ‘yours sincerely’ and so on.
  6. Signature- at the end, a person should write his/ her name which identifies which person write the letter of request.

Examples of Letter of Request

1. Vacation request letter

Date- 20 March 2019


Mr. Ashok Gupta

Shift Manager

Max store

Lamothe street

Sudbury, Ontario

Subject- Request for vacation

Respected Sir,

I would request you to give me leave from 1st April to 15th April 2019. I need the holidays because I am planning to go on vacation to India. I have not taken any leave from the past 4 months. Actually, I miss my family a lot. So, that’s why I need holidays. I do my work very well.

So, once again please accept my letter of request.

Thanking you,

Yours sincerely,

Mandeep Kaur


2. Reference request letter

March 5, 2019

Raj Kumar



Silver city road,

Sudbury, Ontario

Dear Mr. Raj Kumar

I am writing this letter to ask you that it would be possible for you to provide a reference for me. As I am working as a supervisor and you know that I am a very hardworking and punctual employee and I assist you a lot of time in the work. Now I think that my work experience is more than a supervisor. So, can you reference for me for my promotion as a shift manager? From my working experience, you know my qualities very well.

Now I am in the process of seeking employment as a shift manager. From your reference, I can achieve my goals.

So, please provide a positive reference for me.

Thanking you,


Tiny Taylor

3. Banking letter

Date- 15 March 2019

Ryan Taylor

Nova Scotia bank

Barrydowne road,

Sudbury, Ontario

Dear Ryan,

I am writing this letter to you regarding my credit card. Actually, from some circumstances, I did not pay my credit bill. So, because of this, the bank blocked my card. But you know my previous history related to the payment of credit, I did pay the bill on the time but this time I am facing the problem of surgery of my heart. So, from this, I did not pay my bill on the time.

Now I need the money for my surgery but before this, I will pay my credit bill. So, can you please unblock my credit card. It is urgent now.

I believe that you definitely do this.

Thank you,

Yours sincerely,



Request letter. Retrieved from: https://targetstudy.com/letters/request-letter/

Source line Media. (2001 – 2016). Letter of Request Example. Retrieved from: https://www.samplewords.com/letter-of-request-example/

Template.net. (2019). 5+ Simple Request letter templates – PDF Retrieved from https://www.template.net/business/letters/simple-request-letter-template/

Leaf Group Media. (2019). What is a letter of Request? Retrieved from:




Introduction to Email

Email is a method of exchanging messages between people using electronic devices. Email is defined as the transmission of messages over communication networks. In simple words, email is a message that may contain text, files, images, or other attachments sent through a network to a specified individual or group of individuals. The first email was sent by Ray Tomlinson in 1971. Tomlinson sent the email to himself as a test. By, 1996, more electronic mail was being sent than postal mail.

Purpose of the using Emails

Email is a very flexible medium and can be used for a variety of purposes. Email is considered as a tool which supports the human brain as many of us faces challenges to retrieve about work-related activities which we are doing on a daily basis. It is basically seen as the medium of communication, for example, send and receive messages. It is more used in formal purposes than informal. For example, asking for a leave from an employer, or applying for scholarships or jobs. We also use email for attaches important documentation, arguments, meetings, events. Finally, email is one of the best ways to ask questions of clients, other agents, subordinates and the management in the professional field.

When would someone need to use to it?

Many people use email daily to contact others such as for business purposes, family members and their friends and relatives. People can use email anytime when they need it because email can be sent 24hrs and at the same time we can send emails to several people.

Elements of the Email

We can make an effective and professional email includes these essential elements: keep it short, use professional language means do not use slang words, do not use emotions (with images like a smiley face, sad face). Moreover, email should not be included “errors”, means it should be written with proper grammar and correct spelling. If it includes spelling mistakes and errors, it will show the lack of written communication of you. Email should contain only essential information which is important for the recipient. If an email will be too long as an essay, then they may not read it properly.

Structure of the Email

The structure of the email includes the following parts:

Subject Line– Subject line is important is part of the e-mail because it has a huge influence over whether someone opens an email or not. So, never leave it blank. A short, sweet and effective subject us crucial. Your subject line should not be too long. Keeping it short about 5-7 words. The subject line will help recipients determine their importance. The subject line can also frame the message inside the email.

Greeting– Email looks un-professional without a greeting. Email should include a “Hello”, or “Hi” and the recipient’s name. It’s become common for people to eliminate greetings in emails altogether. However, a greeting can help people easily determine to whom a message is directed.

Body– Body is an essential part of an email message. It contains the message’s text, images, and other data such as attachments. The body should include information instructed and capitalized sentences that reflect proper grammar and punctuation are crucial to your message.

The Closing– The email should be finfish with proper closing including some words, whether it be “Thank you”, “Sincerely”, or “Warm regards”. Professional email closing leaves the reader with a good impression of you and your business.

Signature– Email signature is as important as any other part of your corporate identity, so email should be signed, at least for those people you haven’t emailed before. Without a signature, email has a huge negative impact on a receiver. Emails that end with a proper signature simply looks more professional and trustworthy.

Examples of Emails:

1) Here is an example of a professional Email:

From:  adminhaul547@gmail.com

To:     jennyrozz87@gmail.com

Subject- Dropping Course- PHY-1324

Dear Miss Jenny,

I am thinking about dropping my course PHY-1324 from semester due to too much burden of study and having some other difficult courses. Can you tell me the policies regarding dropping a course? What is the last day when I can drop a course?

Thanking you and I look forward to hearing from you.

Best Regards,


Example 2): Professional Email:

From: shellyapatel@gmail.com  

To:     bluehotel22@gamil.com

Subject:  Extra-Working Hours

Dear Smith,

After finishing my exams, I got 2 months of holidays. So, now I want to work as a full-time employee rather than a part-timer. I hope you will offer me the opportunity to work extra.

Have a Good day.

Thanking you and I look forward to hearing from you.

Best Wishes,


 3) Here is an example of Business Email:

From: wilsonbrown@abcd.com

To:   annaromero76@gamil.com

Subject- Welcome In our Company

Dear Anna,

It’s my pleasure to welcome you to our company to work together towards a common project. We are very excited to have you join our company, and we hope that you will enjoy working with us as a partner. Our company will arrange a staff meeting in the upcoming two weeks, so you will receive an e-mail regarding further details and meeting.

Thanking you with regards,


Manager, ABCD limited, New Lake.



Digital Unite (2018). What is email? Retrieved from: https://www.digitalunite.com/technology-guides/email-skype/email/what-email

Act on Software, (2008-2019). 21 Essential (And not Essential) Elements of email. https://www.act-on.com/blog/21-essential-not-essential-elements-email/



Introduction to Memorandum

Memorandum is more commonly known as a memo, is a short message or record used for internal communications in business (a document typically used for communication within an organization). In simple words, the Memo is a written report prepared especially for a person or group of people and containing information about a particular matter. Memorandum can be as formal as a business letter and to present a report. It is essential in the field of business to build good relationships. It also helps in establishing accountability of things. Memorandum can have only a certain number of formats; it may have a format specific to an office or institution.

Purpose of Memorandum

Memos can be used to quickly communicate with a wide audience something brief but important, for example, procedural changes, price increases, policy additions, meeting schedules, remainders for teams, or summaries of the agreement terms. People use memorandum for different purposes such as to give information to someone, to issue an instruction, to request for help, to give suggestions and so on.

Elements of Memorandum

There are some elements of the memorandum which makes it professional and effective when we write it. These elements describe that, “how to write a good memorandum”. These are: Memos should be written in a brief and simple way, means it should include direct information which you are sharing. The first paragraph of the memorandum should state the purpose of the Memo and then proceed to enlist additional information. Maintain a professional tone and use easy language in writing the memorandum. Make it a short as possible, it should not be too long because it will be boring and uninteresting to read. The headings your memorandum should be effective which attract readers. Avoid spelling mistakes and errors when writing a memorandum.

Structure of the Memorandum

The structure of memorandum includes different parts which are the following:

Heading The heading of the memorandum should be clear and attractive. The heading of the memo follows the basic format:

To: (Reader’s name and job title)

CC: (List others who are receiving copies)

From: (Your name and job title)

Date: (Day, month, and year, spelled out)

Subject: (Topic of the memo)

Your subject line should be brief and clear, and it should be no more than a few words. After writing the header, you should write the recipient address and the CC will serve to address another recipient that you wish to address apart from the main recipient. Use the date on which you are writing the memo. The date is important because it distinguishes the old and new memos in the notice board.

A purpose or Opening- The “purpose” section states the purpose of the memo directly like, “The purpose of the memo is that…..”. The purpose explains why you are writing the memo and leads into the reminder of it.

Summary- The summary is a brief recounting of the entire memorandum. If a memo is one page or less, a summary may not be necessary. If your memo is covering several issues or it is very lengthy, a summary paragraph is appropriate.

Discussion The discussion section provides details of the subject and the justification for the conclusion. The discussion section describes the issues, problems, reasons, and recommendations of the memorandum.

Conclusion/Action- The conclusion introduces the reader to the topic of a memorandum, and the key points. Conclusion describes more detail about the topic which you are writing in the memorandum.

Attachments- In the attachment section, a sender can attach some documents, some copies of important papers, graphs, and diagrams. Do not attach materials that do not relate directly to the subject of your memo.


Here are some examples of a memorandum which are the following:

Example- 1


To: PSB Sales Staff

CC:     Miss. Sunny Het

From:  Kathrin Moor, General Manager

Date:   March 25, 2019

Subject: Customer Presentation

The RPM Marketing presentation you prepared last week to showcase our new product line was exceptional. Your enthusiasm, sales strategy, and product knowledge were impressive and certainly sealed the deal with Mr. Patel.

Thank you for your outstanding work and dedication. Bonus checks will be distributed next week.

My sincere congratulations to all of you!

Example- 2


To: All staff members

From: Emma Kayla, Manager

Date: April 2, 2019

Subject: Facilities Update

I am waiting to inform you that, over the next few weeks, our kitchen and parking area will be under construction as we remodel.

As our company continues to grow, we feel it necessary to provide more communal dining and parking space and we are grateful to our facilities team for their hard work in making that happen. The Construction will be between the weeks April 15- April 30, please use the kitchen on the second floor and park your vehicle in the backside of the building.

Thank you for your cooperation.



To: Department Chairs

From: Dr. Matty Kerns, CEO

Date: March 15, 2019

Please note that we have used more than 80% of the budgeted funds for office supplies for this fiscal year. We have over 3 months left in the fiscal year. Plan accordingly so that you do not overspend in this area.

Please see me to discuss extenuating circumstances.

Thank you.


Lewis, L. (2009, February 13). Memos: Purpose and Format. Retrieved from  https://courses.lumenlearning.com/technicalwriting/chapter/memos_-purpose-and-format-2/

STANDS4, (2001-2019). Definitions for a memorandum, Retrieved from https://www.definitions.net/definition/memorandum



Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Writing in Community and Justice Services Copyright © 2019 by harman sidhu; Nista Rai; and Gurpreert Kaur is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book