Key Terms

aerobic bacteria

Bacteria that require oxygen in order to grow

anaerobic bacteria

Bacteria that only grow in environments where oxygen is not present


 Unwanted bacteria or substances


Lowering the temperature of a food from 60°C (140°F) down to 20°C (70°F) in two hours or less AND then from 20°C (70°F) down to 4°C (40°F) in four hours or less

cooling wands

Reusable, hollow, plastic, sealable containers that are filled with water, sealed, and then once frozen, can be put in a liquid food to help cool the food quickly

critical control points

The steps in the food preparation processes where an action can be taken to control a hazard; loss of control may result in an unacceptable health risk

critical limits

The limits at which a hazard is acceptable without compromising food safety

danger zone

Temperature zone in which bacteria will grow the fastest: between 4°C and 60°C (40°F and 140°F)


A mnemonic to remember the conditions that affect the growth of bacteria: food, acid, temperature, time, oxygen, moisture


First in, first out; the principle of using supplies and stock in the order they were received

finger cots

Small plastic or rubber tubes that, when inserted over a finger, will form a waterproof cover over a cut or sore


Provincial food safety program


Plastic, latex, or rubber gloves that, when worn while handling food, will eliminate direct hand contact with the food


Hazard analysis and critical control points; system to define potential areas of risk in food production and prevention methods

hot hold

To hold foods at 60°C (140°F) or hotter; at these temperatures, pathogens will not grow


Invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms

internal  temperature

The temperature taken with a thermometer in the centre of the food; in the case of whole poultry or large cuts of meat, the temperature should be taken in the thickest part of the flesh without the thermometer touching a bone


Effects on the body produced from the consumption of harmful pathogens or substances


An agent that causes disease, especially a living micro-organism such as a bacterium, virus, or fungus

potentially hazardous foods (PHFs)

Foods that will allow the growth or survival of pathogens OR foods that may be contaminated by pathogens


Any menu item

ready-to-eat food

Any food that can be eaten without cooking or any other additional preparation, and is expected to be served this way


to apply heat or chemicals on a clean food contact surface (e.g., cutting board, countertop) to destroy most pathogens

shallow pans

Large metal pans that are usually not deeper than 10 cm (4 in.) that are useful for cooling foods

sick worker

Any food handler who has one or more of the following symptoms associated with a foodborne illness: sore throat with a fever, diarrhea, fever, vomiting, or jaundice; or has a sore containing pus that is open and draining

super danger zone

The temperature range where pathogens will grow very quickly, between 20°C and 49°C (70°F and 120°F)

temperature abuse

The practice of either not cooling PHFs fast enough after cooking (see Cooling) or of storing PHFs between 4°C and 60°C (40°F and 140°F )


Any of various poisonous substances produced by microorganisms that stimulate the production of neutralizing substances (antitoxins) in the body



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Food Safety, Sanitation, and Personal Hygiene Copyright © 2015 by go2HR is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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