13.11. Key Terms

Chapter 13 

3D Printing: To print any 3D object based on a model of that object designed on a computer. 3D printers work by creating layer upon layer of the model using malleable materials, such as different types of glass, metals, or even wax. (13.9)

Artificial Intelligence: The ability of a computer or machine to think and learn, and mimic human behaviour became the focus of many in the 1950s.(13.2)

Autonomous Technologies: Autonomous robots and vehicles that work by combining software, sensors, and location technologies. Devices that can operate themselves. (13.5)

Augmented reality (AR): Enhances one’s view of the real world with layers of digital information added to it. With AR there is no created scenario; instead, an actual event is being altered in real time. (13.8)

Collaborative Technology: To share data with each other for mutual benefit. Some of this sharing can be done passively and other data can be reported actively. (13.9)

Deep Learning (DL): A process that replicates the working mechanism of the human brain in data processing and also creates patterns for decision making. Deep learning and neural networks have been deployed in several fields, such as computer vision, natural language processing, and speech recognition.(13.7)

Expert Systems (ES): Designed to emulate the human ability to make decisions in specific contexts, and have had a large impact in the world of AI. (13.6)

Extended Reality or XR: XR is an umbrella term that covers all forms and combinations of real and virtual environments. This includes: augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and a combination of the two or mixed reality (MR).(13.8)

Intelligent Agents: Process the inputs it receives, and makes decisions/ takes action based on that information. (13.5)

Internet of Things: The idea of physical objects being connected to the Internet, embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and exchange data. (13.9)

Machine Learning (ML): Uses data and algorithms to imitate the way humans learn. Machine learning is used to analyze data and build models without being explicitly programmed to do so.(13.7)

Nanobot: Is a robot whose components are on the scale of about a nanometer, which is one-billionth of a meter. While still an emerging field, it is showing promise for applications in the medical field.(13.5)

Natural Language Processing (NLP): Allows computers to extract meaning from human language. Natural Language Processing’s goal by design is to read, decipher, and comprehend human language.(13.5)

Rapid Prototyping: Similar to 3D printing will very quickly become widely sought. This can provide a platform where ideas and concepts that are discussed today can have the prototypes available the very next day.(13.9)

Robots: Are automated machines that can execute specific tasks with very little or no human intervention and are able to accomplish tasks with both speed and precision(13.5)

Virtual Reality (VR): Computer interaction in which a real or imagined environment is simulated. This allows users to both interact with and alter that reality within the environment. (13.8)

Wearable Technology: A category of technology devices that can be worn by a consumer and often include tracking information related to health and fitness. (13.9)

Adapted from Information Systems for Business and Beyond Glossary by Ruth Guthrie licensed under a CC-BY-3.0


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Information Systems for Business and Beyond by Shauna Roch; James Fowler; Barbara Smith; and David Bourgeois is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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