Numbered Image List

Cover and Foreword:

[1] Sobolewski, J. (2014), “Saamis Teepee, World’s Tallest Teepee”, (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[2] USNARA (1972), “Pierre Trudeau in his office in Ottawa with U.S. President Richard Nixon on April 14, 1972”. [Photograph] US National Archives and Record Administration (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

[3] UBCIC (1975), “7th Annual General Assembly of Union of BC Indian Chiefs”. [Photograph]. Union of BC Indian Chief/ Library and Archives Canada (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

Chapter 1:

[4] Roth, Timothy C. (2016), “Snapping turtle emerging from hibernation”. [Photograph] Reproduced with permission from Timothy C. Roth II/Task Force Turtle.

[5] U/Chukotkaa (2001), “Map of Canada (black and white) depicting the approximate line of the Arctic Circle”. [Map] Retrieved from:

[6] Ansgar, Walk (1999), “Women of Iglulik, Nunavut wearing traditional clothing of seal (left) and caribou (right)”. [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 2.5). Retrieved from:

[7] Statistics Canada (2015), “Map of Inuit Nunangat (including Inuvialuit, Nunavut, and Nunatsiavut)”. [Map] Statistics Canada (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[8] Google Maps (2020), “Moose Factory Island Satellite Image”. [Map/Satellite Image] Google Maps (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:,-80.6162169,3643m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x4d10bfa0a92e4cf3:0xa3a38024c584496a!8m2!3d51.2613943!4d-80.6031298

[9] (2017), “Group celebrating Louis Riel Day”. [Photograph] Retrieved from:

[10] Statistics Canada (2016), “Population breakdown, Census 2016 (rounded)”.[Chart] Statistics Canada. [Table by: Anya Hageman, 2020].

[11] Statistics Canada (2016), “Aboriginal identity population by both sexes, total – age, 2016 counts, provinces and territories, 2016 Census”. [Graph] – Aboriginal Peoples Highlight Tables, 2016 Census. [Graphed by: Pauline Galoustian]. Retrieved from:

[12] Unknown Photographer (2016), “Denesuline Canadian Gabrielle Scrimshaw – Indigenous Entrepreneur, Writer and Speaker”. [Photograph] Retrieved from:

Chapter 2:

[13] Russill, Nick (2006), “Young Inuit child with husky puppy”. [Photograph] (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[14] ISC (2019), “The Community Well-Being Index. First Nations, Inuit and Non-Aboriginal Report”. [Graph] Indigenous   Services Canada (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[15] Beedie, N., Macdonald, D., & Wilson, D. (2019), “Child Poverty Rates, 2015 data as recorded in the 2016 Census”. [Chart] [Edited & consolidated by A. Hageman, 2020]. Retrieved from:

[16] Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (2011), “Self-reported Aboriginal Ancestry Graph”. [Graph]  Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (2011):  A Report to Parliament on the Readiness of First Nations Communities and Organizations to Comply with the Canadian Human Rights Act (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[17] Statistics Canada (2016), “Canada’s Aboriginal Population Infographic”. [Chart] Consolidated graphic by: Pauline Galoustian. Census 2016, Statistics Canada (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[18] Hoffman, J. (2017), “Small children dancing at the Spirit of Our Nations Cultural Celebration and Powwow, Treaty 4 Territory, Regina”. [Photograph] (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

Chapter 3:

[19] Galoustian, Pauline (2020), “Stylized Map of Indigenous Cultural Groups in Canada”. [Map] Created for the Open Text “Economic Aspect of the Indigenous Experience in Canada” by Dr. Anya Hageman 2020.

[20] Yukon Government (2016), “Copper arrow made of antler”. [Photograph] Carcross/Tagish First Nation, Yukon. Retrieved from:

[21] CUPE Ontario (2016), “Hiawatha Belt”. [Photograph] Canadian Union of Public Employees, Ontario (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[22] Quine, Thomas (2017a), “A 200-year-old fishing hook made of bone and plant fibers by members of Haida First Nation”. [Photograph] Royal Ontario Museum (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[23] Quine, Thomas (2018a), “Salmon carving (Haida Nation)”. [Photograph] Audain Museum, Whistler, British Columbia (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[24] GNPS (2018), “Culturally Scarred Western Red Cedar Tree”. [Photograph]  Glacier National Park Services (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

[25] Quine, Thomas (2017b), “Haida Chest (bent box), pre 1901, approx. ½ meter high and wide”. [Photograph] UBC, Museum of Anthropology, Vancouver, BC (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[26] Google Maps (2020), “Asian Coastline, European Coastline, BC Coastline”.[Map] Google Maps (CC BY 2.0).

[27] Jensen, Vickie (1983), “Peace dance at Kwaxalanukwame’ ‘Namugwis, Chief William T. Cranmer’s potlatch”. [Photograph] UPN-01458. Retrieved from:

[28] “Haida Nation copper plate”. [Photograph] Canadian Museum of History Archives (CC BY-NC 2.0). Retrieved from:

[29] Dupond, Gregoire (2016), “Modern Potlatch – Chief Alan Hunt’s Potlatch Ceremony (people surrounding a fire and food)”. [Photograph] Kwakwaka’wakw First Nation/ BC TimeSlip, With permission from: Alan Hunt. Retrieved from:

[30] NMAI (2012), “The Lone Dog winter count painted on cowhide”. [Photograph] National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI 21/8701) (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[31] Alahmad, Daoud (2012), “Plains Bison”. [Photograph] (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

[32] Bockner, Louis (2018), “Aerial view of the lowlands of Wood Buffalo National Park”. [Photograph] Sierra Club BC (CC BY-NC 2.0) . Retrieved from:

[33] LAC (2017a), “Indigenous woman, possibly Innu, making snowshoes”. [Photograph] Canada. Dept. of Interior / Library and Archives Canada / PA-044223 (Access 90 Open) MIKAN No. 3367092. Retrieved from:

[34] Stanley, David (2015), “Inuit kayaker”. [Photograph] (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[35] White, John (1590), “Iroquoian Village”. [Illustration] Wikimedia Commons (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

Chapter 4:

[36] Treuer, Anton (2014). “Figure 14. Map of Indian Population 1600s”. [Map] Atlas of Indian Nations, National Geographic, 2014.

[37] LAC (2017b), “Three Inuit men after a hunt (L to R: Lucas, Bobbie and Johnnie) posing for a photograph outside, Port Burwell, Nunavut”. [Photograph] Library and Archives Canada (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[38] Raj, Vishal (2012), “An example of periodic activity generated by the Predator-Prey Model”. [Graph] Retrieved from:

[39] LAC (2017), “A Sioux family”. [Photograph] Nokota Horses. Retrieved from:

Chapter 5:

[40] Gavey, Derek (2011), “Walk in the forest”. [Photograph] (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[41] MMWC (2014), “Crow Nation girl next to a pole of drying meat 1908”. Credits to: Mathers Museum of World Cultures (CC BY-NC 2.0). Retrieved from:

[42] Harrington, Richard (“Inuit woman [and young girl, Marion Bolt (Hayohok)] tending the seal-oil inside an igloo in Western Arctic, N.W.T. [Nunavut], 1949”. [Photograph] Canada. Dept. of Indian and Northern Affairs / Library and Archives Canada / PA-143237 (Access 90 Open) MIKAN No. 3202745. Retrieved from:

[43] Quine, Thomas (2018b), “Loon Crown”. [Photograph] UBC, Museum of Anthropology, Vancouver, BC. (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[44] Quine, Thomas (2017c),“Eulachon Grease Bowl shaped as a seal 1790 (Haida Nation feast bowl)”. [Photograph] UBC, Museum of Anthropology, Vancouver, BC. (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[45] Canadian Heritage (2017), “Statue of Tessouat, Algonquin Chief”. [Photograph] Canadian Heritage, Retrieved from:

[46] Galoustian, Pauline (2020), “Sacred feather used in a talking circle exercise in Tyendinaga First Nation”. [Photograph] (Public Domain).

[47] Forgotten Alberta Archive (2007), “Medicine Wheel, Majorville, Alberta”. [Photograph] Forgotten Alberta Archive (CC BY-NC 2.0). Retrieved from: ;

[48] (2014), “Modern depiction of the Medicine Wheel and the four directions”. [Logo] (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

[49] MM (2013), “Mauri-o-Meter Scale”. [Graph] [Graphic by Pauline Galoustian] (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

[50] Curtis, Edward S. (1928) “A Cree man from Lac des Isles, Saskatchewan, 1928”. [Photograph] Library and Archives Canada, 2017. PA-039702. (Access 90 Open) MIKAN 3195149, 3629810. Retrieved from:

Chapter 6:

[51] Galoustian, Pauline (2020), “Colonial Mercantilism (1600’s to 1800’s) flow chart”. [Graphic] (CC BY 2.0).

[52] Eastman, Samuel (1857), “Engraving showing a Native American medicine man caring for an ill Native American 1857”. [Illustration] National Library of Medicine, 2017. Wikimedia Commons (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

[53] De Champlain, Samuel (1608), “Map of Quebec City, drawn by Samuel de Champlain in 1608”. [Map] Library and Archives Canada (Access 90 Open) MIKAN No. e010764752. Retrieved from:

[54] Greenlar, Mike (2010), “Onondaga Nation Chief Irving Powless Jr. displaying the two row wampum belt”. [Photograph] Syracuse Peace Council (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[55] Esemono Maps (2009), “Colonial distribution of Power Before 7 After the Seven-Year’s War/ French-Indian War”. [Map/GIF] Wikimedia Commons (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

[56] Garthone, Francis (2019), “Queen Anne silver Communion Service, St. Paul’s Church, Halifax, Nova Scotia”. [Photograph] Hantsheroes (Public Domain). Retrieved from:,_St._Paul%27s_Church,_Halifax,_Nova_Scotia.jpg

[57] Waldrof, Josh S. (2018), “Royal Proclamation Document 1763″. [Photograph] Library and Archives Canada (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[58] Esemono Maps (2009), “Colonial distribution of power in 1791”. [Map/GIF] Wikimedia Commons (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

[59] HAC (1987), “City Populations by year”. [Graph] Historic Atlas of Canada. Retrieved from:

Chapter 7:

[60] Steve, S. (2007), “The North American beaver”. [Photograph] Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[61] Decumanus & Themightyquill (2011), “Map of Rupert’s Land, showing the location of York Factory”. [Map] BlankMap-USA-states-Canada-provinces.svg: Lokal_Profil; Wpdms_ruperts_land.jpg: en:User:Decumanus; Derivative work by: Themightyquill (CC BY-SA 3.0). Retrieved from:

[62] Hageman, Anya (2017), “The pelt above is a standard “made beaver” valued at 1 mb”. [Photograph] Fort Langley Museum, BC. (Public Domain).

[63] AEAC (2017), “Pre-1873 child’s dress from Dene Nation (Athapaskan language group)”. [Photograph] Collection of Agnes Etherington Art Centre at Queen’s University (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[64] Quine, Thomas (2019), “Antique Beaver Top Hats, made in the late 1830’s”. [Photograph] Kelowna Heritage Museum, Kelowna, British Columbia (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

Chapter 8:

[65] LAC (2017), “Métis Traders on the Plains 1872-1873”. [Photograph] Library and Archives Canada (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[66] Bell, Robert (2009), “Métis Family at Osnaburg House, Ontario. [Photograph] Library and Archives Canada e011156727_s1 (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[67] Corrigan, Chris (2005) “Métis Sashes”. [Photograph] (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[68] National Geographic (2018), “Major Transportation Trails used by the Métis before 1880s”. [Map] Canadian Geographic Atlas of Indigenous Peoples, Métis volume, 2018. (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[69] LAC (2018), “The Dominion of Canada before the purchase of Rupert’s Land”. [Map] Library and Archives Canada (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[70] Topley, W. J. (1870), “Louis Riel with members of his council in 1870”. [Photograph] Topley Studio/Library and Archives Canada (Access 90 Open)

[71] CPR (1890), “Bison Skeletons, Gulf Lake, SK, circa 1890’s (Ref. 17161)”. [Photograph] Canadian Pacific Railway. (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[72] Hornaday, T (2008), Based on “Map Illustrating the Extermination of the American Bison” by W. T. Hornaday”. [Map] Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division, 2017. (CC BY-SA 3.0). Retrieved from:

[73] Hageman, Anya (2020), “The most dangerous to least dangerous provinces, by sex and Status, 2010-2013”. [Chart] [Chart compiled by Anya Hageman] Data source:  Figure 4, Akee and Feir, 2018.

Chapter 9:

[74] Encyclopedia Britannica (2020), “Map of Canada 1871”. [Map] Encyclopedia Britannica (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[75] Government of Canada (2007), “Historic Indian Treaties Map, 2007”. [Photograph] Government of Canada. (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[76] LAC (1986), “Both sides of a commemorative coin, Chief’s Medal, presented to commemorate Treaty Numbers 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, 1986”. [Photograph] Library and Archives Canada 1986-79-1638 (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[77] LAC (2006), “Mistahimaskwa (Big Bear ca. 1825-1888), the Plains Cree chief during his time in prison”. [Photograph]. Library and Archives Canada/ C-001873 MIKAN No. 3192597 (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[78] Woodruff, John (1910) “Farming on Reserves – A Blackfoot family, from a reserve near Raymond, Alberta”. [Photograph] Library and Archives Canada, 2010 (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[79] Bengough, John W. (1888), “Christian Statesmanship.” [Illustration] The Grip/Macdonald Library (Public Domain). Retrieved from:,_Edgar_Dewdney,_and_starvation.jpg

[80] LAC (2004), “A Métis family at their camp with a Red River Cart in Manitoba”. [Photograph] Rice Studio / Library and Archives Canada / c001644, MIKAN: 3392788 (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

Chapter 10:

[81] LAC (2010), “Air view of Indian Reserve, Split Lake, Manitoba. c 1925”. Credits to: Dept. of Interior. Library and Archives Canada, PA-041572 (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[82] LAC (2018), “Group in position of power, Fort Pitt 1884”. Library and Archives Canada (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[83] Enberg, Susan G. (2015), “Burning of St. Anne’s Residential School”. [Photograph] Cultural Survival. Retrieved from:

[84] INAC & LAC (2018), “Group of female students, Cross Lake Indian Residential School, February 1940”. Canada Dept. Indian and Northern Affairs/ Reuters / Library and Archives Canada / e011080274. MIKAN No. 4673899 (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[85] Bryce, David G. (2016), “Portrait of Peter Henderson Bryce taken in 1890”. [Photograph] Lancefields of Ottawa (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

Chapter 11:

[86] ISC  (2019), “Sample Secure Certificate of Indian Status Card, issued centrally by Indigenous Services Canada”. [Photograph] Government of Canada (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[87] Jeddore, John (2012), “L’nu Mi’kmaw wedding in Miawpukek First Nation held by Chief Joe”. [Photograph] (CC BY-NC 2.0). Retrieved from:

[88] LAC (2016), “Treaty Payments being made in 1930”. [Photograph] Library and Archives Canada MIKAN No. 3348407 (Access 90 Open)

[89] Galoustian, Pauline (2020), “Information on Income Tax exemption for Status persons, under Section 87 of the Indian Act”. [Photograph] Private Submission (Public Domain).

Chapter 12:

[90] P199 (2010), “Casino Rama, Mnjikaning First Nation Reserve, Ontario, Canada”. [Photograph] (CC BY-SA 3.0). Retrieved from:

[91] Galoustian, Pauline (2020), “17 Casinos which are hosted by First Nations across Canada”. My Google Maps 2020.  Retrieved from:

[92] WCD (2020), “Casinos offering table games, by location and listed ownership”. World Casino Directory. Retrieved from:

[93] Nicholas, Clifton (2017), “A number of Kanien’kehá:ka (Mohawk) representatives elected to the inaugural board of the National Indigenous Medical Cannabis Association”. Private Website (CC BY 2.0).

Chapter 13:

[94] Porter, Jody (2016), “Barbara Kentner, Thunder Bay, Ontario”. CBC News. Retrieved from:

[95] AMTEC (2017), “Interview process”. [Photograph by Stefanie Cassidy] AMTEC Company Official Website (CC BY-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[96] AMTEC (2017), “Selection”. Photo by Amtec Photos (CC BY-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[97] Stanley, David (2015), “Inuit Dock Worker”. (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[98] Unknown Photographer (1971), “Economics Nobel Prize winner, Dr. Simon Kuznets 1971”. Associated Press, Wikimedia (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

[99] Gallup et al. (2012), “Figure 3: Inequality in a Cross Section of Countries with a Quadratic Fit”. Retrieved from:

Chapter 14:

[100] Hageman, Anya (2020), “Two-Step Path to Wage Gap”. [Graphic by Pauline Galoustian] (Public Domain).

Chapter 15:

[101] LAC (2018), “Indian Treaty No. 9 Commission, 1905”. Library and Archives Canada MIKAN #: 3367550 (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[102] Archives of Ontario (2017), “The first page of The James Bay Treaty (Treaty No. 9)”. [Page 1] Reference Code: F 775, (1905) [Item 13]; Archives of Ontario, Wikimedia (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[103] Archives of Ontario (2017), “The fifth page of The James Bay Treaty (Treaty No. 9)”. [Page 5] Reference Code: RG 1-653 (Articles of James Bay Treaty). Archives of Ontario, Wikimedia (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[104] Unknown Photographer (2005), “The spillway of the Robert-Bourassa Dam (formerly La Grande-2)”. P199 at Wikimedia Commons. (CC BY 2.5) & (CC BY-SA 3.0). Retrieved from:,_Centrale_hydro-%C3%A9lectrique_Robert-Bourassa.jpg

[105] LAC (2020), “Signing of the James Bay Agreement”. Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Dev. / Library and Archives Canada / PA-143013. MIKAN No. 3202097 (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[106] Brisson, Carl (2005), “Map of Indigenous Nations, Quebec & Labrador”. [Map] Historical Research Group, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Electronic Atlas of Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 CA). Retrieved from:

[107] Wetzel, Richard (2007), “Kangiqsualujjuaq, Nunavik”. (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

[108] Ignace, Ronald E. (2013), “Coyote’s Sweathouse, near Alexis Creek, BC, an old boundary marker between the Secwépemc and Tsilhqot’in”. Figure 8.2 of Ignace and Ignace (2018), Shuswap Nation Tribal Council (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0).

[109] Unknown Photographer (1973), “Resolving the Nisga’a Land Question”. Nisga’a Lisims Government (CC BY-NC 2.0). Retrieved from:

[110] Fiegehen, Gary (1999), “Dr. Frank Calder, Nisga’a President Emeritus, after whom the famous Calder Case is named, outside the Supreme Court of Canada”. Nisga’a Lisims Government (CC BY-NC 2.0). Retrieved from:

[111] MNO (2016), “Métis Nation delegates at the meeting between Indigenous leaders and Canadian First Ministers”. Métis Nation of Ontario. Retrieved from:

Chapter 16:

[112] CCAB (2017), “Statistics on Canada’s Indigenous Small and Medium Exporting and Non-Exporting Business, 2017”. [Graphic by: Pauline Galoustian], Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business. Retrieved from:

[113] Flanagan, Thomas (2019), “First Nation Revenues by Source, 500 First Nations in Canada 2015-16”. Fraser Institute. Graphic by: Pauline Galoustian.

[114] Unknown Photographer (2018), “University of Fraser Valley – Metis Nation, BC Joint Education Development Project Announcement-27”. [Photograph] University of Fraser Valley, (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[115] Unknown Photographer (2013), “Inuit hunter feeds his child with still warm meat from just hunted ring seal, Pond Inlet, Canada”. GRID-Arendal (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[116] IRC (2015), “IRC, Government of Canada and Government of Northwest Territories sign a Self-Government Agreement-in-Principle”. Inuvialuit Regional Corporation. Retrieved form:

[117] NIEDB (2020), “2015 Gini Index (based on Census 2016)”. Census Data 2016, reported in National indigenous Economic development Board. Retrieved from:

Chapter 17:

[118] Department of Finance (2017), “Consolidated Table of Federal Transfers (by Region/Province) for 2015-16 compared to 2018-19”. Based on Reference Tables and Reports of the Department of Finance, 2017. Consolidated by: Anya Hageman & Pauline Galoustian.

[119] GC Infobase (2019), “Report Builder – Expenditures by Standard Object – Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada”. Source: Government of Canada. Compiled by: Pauline Galoustian.

[120] GC Infobase (2019), “Report Builder – Expenditures by Standard Object – Indigenous Services Canada”. Source: Government of Canada. Compiled by: Pauline Galoustian.

Chapter 18:

[121] Government of Canada (2015), “Honouring Jordan River Anderson”. [Photograph] Government of Canada (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[122] Unknown Photographer (2019), “Cindy Blackstock holding up a plush bear like the one which “bears” witness during FNFCS court cases”. Retrieved from:

[123] Unknown Photographer (2019), “Bear Witness Day”. Province of New Brunswick (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

[124] GC Indigenous (2019), “The introduction of Bill C-92”. [Photograph] Government of Canada. Retrieved from:

Chapter 19:

[125] LAC (1939), “Chiefs of the Stoney Indian Tribe receiving a photo of Queen Victoria as a gift from their Majesties”. National Film Board of Canada. Photothèque / Library and Archives Canada / PA-131185, MIKAN No. 3592436. (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[126] Unknown Photographer (2014), “Leadnow Canada, Wet’suwet’en hereditary chiefs (bottom left corner) lead protest in Smithers, BC”. Office of the Wet’suwet’en/Francois Depey, (CC BY-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[127] Galoustian, Pauline (2020), “Trump’s Foreign Policy Wrecking Ball”. Private Submission (Public Domain).

[128] Statistics Canada (2013), “Aboriginal Peoples – First Nation Reserves by Population Size, 2011 (Figure 6)”. Government of Canada (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[129] Patterson, Rachel (2009), “Intersection of Church and State St. – a symbolic separation of paths”. (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[130] AANDC (2014), “Distribution of Salaries for First Nation Chiefs, 2013-14”. Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

Chapter 20:

[131] Girard, Ryan (2016), “A sign warns of water problems on part of the Alexis Nakota Sioux First Nation in Alberta”. Alberta Venture. Retrieved from:

[132] Johnston and Sharpe (2019), “Infrastructure Index for Remote Communities”. [Chart] Heritage Group.

[133] Greying, Geezer (2011), “Serpent River”. DSD_7558 (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from :

Chapter 21:

[134] Galoustian, Pauline (2020), “Typical on-reserve housing units, Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory”. [Photograph] Private Photo (Public Domain).

[135] Mikofox Photography (2017), “House in need of serious repair, Malachan Indian Reserve, Vancouver Island”. (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[136] Olsen, Sylvia (2019), “Timeline of On-Reserve Housing Programs and Developments”. Graphic by: Pauline Galoustian [Based on: A Short History of On-Reserve Housing. Content by: Sylvia Olsen; Original graphic design by: Desiree Bender;]. Retrieved from: [138]

[137] Unknown Photographer (2017), ”Project Keetwonen Amsterdam”. [Photograph] Tempohousing. Retrieved from:

[138] Boullosa, Nicolás (2018), “Shipping Container Housing”. (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

Chapter 22:

[139] Unknown Photographer (2010), “Indigenous Women in Professional Trades Training – Intake 1”. Thompson Rivers University (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[140] NIEDB (2019), “Employment Rates 2016”. [Chart] National Indigenous Economic Development Board, Annex A, Tables 1 and 37.

[141] Government of BC (2013), “The 6th cohort to graduate from the Aboriginal Youth Internship Program (AYIP)”. Province of BC (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[142] ISC (2020), “Indigenous Services Canada Departmental Spending Report 2018-2019 & Budgetary Planning Summary for 2019-20”. Graphic by: Pauline Galoustian, (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

Chapter 23:

[143] Government of BC (2015), “Students from Sema:th First Nation, Stó:lō First Nation and local Métis communities celebrating National Aboriginal Day 2015 after class”. Province of BC (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[144] Statistics Canada (2016), “Education Attainment in Canada for Population aged 15 years and older, 2016 Census (based on Identity)”. Graphics compiled by: Pauline Galoustian, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-400-X2016177 (CC BY 2.0).

[145] Galoustian, Pauline (2020), “First Nation On-Reserve Education System Structure and Responsibility Breakdown”.

[146] Unknown Photographer (2014), “Grade 11 and 12 Indigenous students from First Nations communities and schools in the annual Aboriginal Students in Math and Science Workshop”. Simon Fraser University (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[147] Galoustian, Pauline (2020), “First Nation On-Reserve Education System Structure and Responsibility Breakdown”.

[148] Marshall, Sean (2018), “First Nations University of Canada, Regina SK”. (CC BY-NC 2.0). Retrieved from:

Chapter 24:

[149] Unknown Photographer (2018), “A girl smiles after receiving her birth certificate in a program run by Plan International”. Plan International. Retrieved from:

[150] Community Archives (1972), “A reproduction of ‘Plan of Village of Melrose on part of north ranges’ of customary allotments in the of Township of Tyendinaga”. Hastings Land Registry Office (Public Domain). Retrieved from:

[151] BON (2013), ”Brokenhead Ojibway Nation Council making changes to their new Land Code”. Brokenhead Ojibway Nation. Retrieved from:

Chapter 25:

[152] Unknown Photographer (2013), “Tsilhqot’in and counsel with legal team representing the Secwepemc, Okanagan and Union of BC Indian Chiefs, Intervenors before the Supreme Court”. Thompson Rivers University (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

Chapter 26:

[153] Pomachiowin Aki Heritage Org. (2007), “POMACHIOWIN AKI Map of the World Heritage Site”. Retrieved from:

[154] Bockner, Louis (2018), “Tree islands, evidence of lowering water levels in Wood Buffalo National Park”. Sierra Club BC   (CC BY-NC 2.0). Retrieved from:

[155] Dodge, David (2013), “Solar T’Souke – T’Souke Chief Gordon Planes amongst a sea of solar modules on the canoe shed on Vancouver Island. Green Energy Futures, (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[155] Cowgirl, Jules (2013), “Pheasant hunting”. (CC BY-NC 2.0). Retrieved from:

[156] Bockner, Louis (2018), “Robert Grandjambe pulling a lake trout from his nets in Lake Athabasca near Fort Chipewyan First Nation”. Sierra Club BC (CC BY-NC 2.0). Retrieved from:

[157] Lord, Kent (2010), “Commercial fishing boat buying salmon from the local Katzie First Nation peoples – Pitt Meadows, BC. (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[158] Spiske, Markus (2019), “Forestry”. (Public Domain).

[159] Pacheedaht First Nation (2016), “Workers in the sawmill on the Pacheedaht First Nation reserve in Port Renfrew, British Columbia”. Government of Canada [Modified in 2020] (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[160] NRCan (2018), “Indigenous Forestry Initiative team working with members of the Teslin Tlingit Council  in Yukon on a wood biomass energy initiative”. Government of Canada. (Access 90 Open). Retrieved from:

[161] McKenna, Gord (2011), “Copper Mining in Canada”. [Photograph] (CC BY-NC 2.0). Retrieved from:

[162] Oja Jay, Dru (2008), “Alberta’s Oil Sands north of Fort McMurray”. [Photograph] Dominion/Howls Art Collective (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[163] NWT & Nunavut Chamber of Mines (2011), “Signing of the Liidlii Kue Impact Benefit Agreement”. [Photograph] Northern Mining News – Vol. 4, No. 6. Retrieved from:

[164] Statistics Canada (2016), “Natural Resources as a % of Provincial GDP and High School Education attainment by Province”. Census 2016, [Compiled by: Pauline Galoustian].

Chapter 27:

[165] Hageman, Anya (2020), “Financial Flow to and from Business”. [Graphic] Designed by Pauline Galoustian.

[166] INAC (2020), “Governmental and Non-governmental Financing Programs (ISC)”. Indigenous Northern Affairs Canada, [Compiled by Pauline Galoustian]. Retrieved from:

Chapter 28:

[167] IWC (2020), “Creating Partnership Intersections”. Indigenous Works Canada. Retrieved from:

[168] Tulo (2014), “Development Stages and Transactions Costs – Chapter 2”. [Modified by Anya Hageman].

[169] Hageman, Anya (2020), “Nishnawbe Aski Police Service Police Station, Cochrane ON”. Private Submission (CC BY 3.0).

[170] Unknown Photographer (2018), “Gladue Courthouse in Wagmatcook First Nation”. Provincial Courts of Nova Scotia/Wagmatcook First Nation. Retrieved from:

Chapter 29:

[171] Susanvg (2010), “Inuit Girls“. [Photograph] (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[172] Clarke, Rusty (2013), “Gas Pipe Control Station, Blue Heron Wetlands”. [Photograph] (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[173] Sahtu Wildlife (2007), “DeHavilland DC-6 : Twin Otter“. [Photograph] (CC BY-NC 2.0). Retrieved from:

[174] Sulzenko, A. & Kent Fellows, G. (2016), “Map of Proposed northern Corridor Route”. University of Calgary. Retrieved from:

[175] Caron, Jean (2010), “Freshly caught turbot”. [Photograph] (CC BY 2.0). Retrieved from:

[176] Unknown Photographer (2019), “The Berkshare, used since 2006, is denominated between 1 and 50”. [Photograph] Retrieved from:

[177] Unknown Photographer (2011), “The Ithaca Hour, used since 1991”. [Photograph] Ithaca Times. Retrieved from:

[178] Unknown Photographer (2018), “Phenomenally Indigenous Movement”. [Photograph] Urban Native. Retrieved from:

Chapter 30 and Conclusion:

[179] AFCC (2018), “Gathering at the Aboriginal Friendship Centre of Calgary”. [Photograph] AFCC Facebook Website. Retrieved from:

[180] GC InfoBase (2020), “Spending on Urban and Off-Reserve Indigenous Communities in Comparison to Total Government Expenditures GC InfoBase Expenditures in 2018-2019”. Graph by: Pauline Galoustian, 2020. Retrieved from:‘dept_348.-.-table.-.-‘programSpending.-.-columns.-.-(.-.-‘*7b*7bpa_last_year_5*7d*7dexp.-.-‘*7b*7bpa_last_year_4*7d*7dexp.-.-‘*7b*7bpa_last_year_3*7d*7dexp.-.-‘*7b*7bpa_last_year_2*7d*7dexp.-.-‘*7b*7bpa_last_year*7d*7dexp.-.-‘*7b*7bplanning_year_1*7d*7d.-.-‘*7b*7bplanning_year_2*7d*7d.-.-‘*7b*7bplanning_year_3*7d*7d).-.-dimension.-.-‘gov_outcome.-.-filter.-.-‘All)

[181] Galoustian, Pauline (2020), “Red Ribbon Wall in honour of Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women, Peterborough”. [Photograph] Private Submission (Public Domain).

[182] GEF (2020), “Youth Cultural Integration, Louis Bull IR, Alberta”. [Photograph] Green Energy Futures (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from:

[183] Couros, Alec (2012), “Hoop dancer teaching young boy”. FNUC (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0). Retrieved from: